Valeriana Products

2015 | Comments Off

There are four species of Valeriana that are important articles of commerce either as the plant material or as extracts used in the production of the commodities mentioned below. These species are European Valerian Valeriana officinalis L., Indian Valerian V. wallichii DC, Mexican Valerian V. edulis Nutt. ex Torr. & Gray and Japanese Valerian V. fauriei Briq.. Commercial supplies of these four species are mainly obtained from cultivation but some plants are still collected from the wild. The first three of these are cultivated in Europe whilst Japanese Valerian is grown and used mainly in the Far East and Indian Valerian is the species grown and used on the Indian subcontinent. Valeriana officinalis is also grown commercially in North America. Most of the data available refers to Valeriana officinalis since this is the species which has received most attention as a commercial crop and is consequendy utilised in Western society. It should be remembered, however, that a large trade in these and more local Valeriana species, as with other plants used in traditional medicine, occurs within developing countries at a local level and information concerning this usage is practically impossible to obtain. In these conditions Read more [...]

Perilla and the Treatment of Allergy

2015 | Comments Off

Perilla (Perilla frutescens Britt.), a traditional Chinese herb, has recently received special attention because of its beneficial effects in the treatment of some kinds of allergic reactions without the side effects associated with some other used antiallergy medicines. In this chapter, the authors present a review of the problem of allergy and the current favorable evidence for the use of Perilla products towards its resolution. The Allergy Problem Allergy is an abnormal immune reaction of the body to allergens such as pollen, dust, certain foods, drugs, animal fur, animal pets, animal excretions, feathers, microorganisms, cosmetics, textiles, dyes, smoke, chemical pollutants and insect stings. Certain conditions such as cold, heat, or light may also cause allergic symptoms in some susceptible people. Some allergens are just specific to some individuals but not to others. Allergens may act via inhalation, ingestion, injection or by contact with the skin. The resulting allergy may cause the victim to have a medical problem such as hay fever (allergicrhinitis), or atopic dermatitis (eczema), or allergic asthma, with symptoms ranging from sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itch, obstruction to nasal air-flow, loss of sense Read more [...]

Application of Perilla Leaf Extract for Allergy

2015 | Comments Off

In addition to the factory made Perilla products, several other methods for Perilla preparation are available in the folklore of China and Japan (). The application of home made Perilla extract is also used for the treatment of allergy. However, the removal from the extract of agricultural chemicals and perillaldehyde, which might be allergens to some individuals is important (). Administration of Perilla Leaf Extract Dr. Oyanagi et al. reported their experiences in treating allergy patients with Perilla products (). According to the different symptoms and the condition of the patients administration may be singly or combined (). Oral administration For the concentrated products of Perilla extract, the dose was 0.3-2 ml/50—100 ml water or other drink, 2-3 times daily dependent on the age. With home made or diluted extract, the dosage varied with the concentration and methods of preparation. Nasal application To relieve the symptoms of an itching or running nose, the Perilla extract was applied inside the nostrils using a cotton bud. Topical application of Perilla extract Application to the skin was helpful in relieving the itching and redness. Topical use of Perilla cream and soap For some atopic dermatitis, Read more [...]

The Possible Mechanisms of Perilla in the Treatment of Allergy

2015 | Comments Off

Although the precise mechanisms of Perilla treatment for allergy are not yet well elucidated, recent researches on the various phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties have also revealed some mechanisms of Perilla action in allergy. Kosuna () recently published a review on anti-inflammatory active compounds in Perilla. Several active components contained in Perilla have been found to be linked with antiallergy and anti-inflammatory actions. These include elemicine, CX-pinene, caryophyllene, myristicin, β-sitosterol, apigenin, phenylpropanoids and also some flavonoids which act as anti-inflammatory agents (). From current knowledge, the mechanisms of allergy treatment by Perilla may involve the following aspects which are Linked to the regulation of the condition by the immune system. Perilla Leaf Extract TNF inhibition Relevant to this section is the Perilla leaf extract which contains active components of molecular weight less than 10000. As mentioned above, Yamazaki reported that Perilla extract was shown to be active in inhibiting TNF production (). Kosuna proposed that more than ten active components contained in the Perilla leaf extract were active in inhibiting TNF production which plays an important Read more [...]

Eucalyptus oil products: Formulations and legislation

2015 | Comments Off

Eucalyptus oils are being used with increasing frequency in a variety of products found in the supermarket or pharmacy. ‘With extract of Eucalyptus’ or ‘With Eucalyptus essential oil’ claims are becoming more common on the labels of modern consumer products such as cosmetics, toiletries and household products due to the ever-increasing interest in natural or botanical ingredients. Eucalyptus oil may be used as an active ingredient to provide scientifically provable benefits – such as nasal decongestion or antibacterial effects – or at much lower dosages to impart more esoteric or folkloric connotations to the product concerned. Eucalyptus oils are also used as components of perfumes to provide a medicinal-type note to the fragrance. Eucalyptus globulus, or Blue Gum, oil was a traditional Australian aboriginal remedy for infections and fevers. It is now used all over the world for relieving coughs and colds, sore throats and other infections. Its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, is mucolytic (i.e. it thins out and relaxes the flow of mucus) and is excreted through the lung surface. Eucalyptus radiata oil is sometimes preferred by aromatherapists for its more pleasant smell while Eucalyptus smithii oil is Read more [...]

The use of eucalyptus oils in consumer products

2015 | Comments Off

Insect repellents As noted in the introduction, Eucalyptus citriodora oil has been used as a ‘natural’ insect repellent. Depending on the product formulation it is used in, Lemon Eucalyptus (known as Quwenling in China) is up to four or five times more effective and longer-lasting than citronella oil (from Cymbopogon nardus), one of the best known natural insect repellents. p-Menthane-3,8-diol is the main active component of Quwenling and this can be isolated and used as a highly effective insect repellent. Eucalyptus citriodora oil contains up to 80–90 per cent citronellal, along with geraniol, both of which are known to have insect repellent activity but tend to dilute the much higher activity of the p-menthane-3,8-diol. The Mosi-guard Natural insect repellent spray produced by MASTA in the UK contains ‘Extract of Lemon Eucalyptus’ and claims on the label: Approved and recommended by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Field trials have shown effective protection for 6 h after a single application in mosquito infected areas. Also protects against many other biting insects. Mosi-guard Natural is made from a natural and renewable resource. It is kind to your skin and has no adverse effects Read more [...]

Neem in Agriculture

2015 | Comments Off

Earlier Reports on Pesticide Activities The activity of neem against locusts, though not well documented, has been well known to Indian farmers since very early times and some information about it is available in the earlier publications (). It was mentioned that locusts avoided feeding on leaves sprayed with crude extracts of neem and China berry. It was Robert Larson of Vikwood Botanicals, USA, who during his many business trips to India, brought to the notice of American scientific workers the property of neem against insects. This was the era when the use of synthetic pesticides was widespread, and more and more health hazards about them were coming to light, but no alternative was in sight. There was a need for safer and effective biodegradable pest control compounds with greater stability. The Problems Created by Synthetic Pesticides It was seen that the continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic chemicals for the control of insects led to the following problems: Environmental pollution, as the chemicals brought about biochemical changes in the various organisms. Health hazards due to high residue levels. Indiscriminate destruction of insects, without any consideration of their beneficial or harmful Read more [...]

Neem: Haircare And Bodycare Products

2015 | Comments Off

The use of neem in skin diseases lead to its application on preventive aspects also. Taking a bath in a decoction of neem leaves was a ritual in some societies. The anti-inflammatory properties of neem preparations made their use more popular. As given in post on Traditional uses, the neem twig is well reputed for oral hygiene, neem oil, extract or fibers have been incorporated in some of the recent toothpastes and a floss has also been prepared. Neem soap is quite popular in India and its use is also spreading in the western world. Neem extract is an important ingredient of some herbal shampoo, and neem oil is used in hair oils, body lotions, creams and mosquito repellent preparations. Neem oil is said to prevent baldness and greying of hair, and has anti-lice and anti-dandruff effects. Patents for these products have also been taken out (). Neem has been incorporated in face packs. A typical formulation may have a very fine powder of leaves, bark and seed in clay. Milan Mehtra () has given some formulations incorporating neem for face packs for oily skin, hair oil and cream for cracks on the back of the heel. In face packs, neem has been mixed with Carica papaya which contains papain and with liquorice. The Read more [...]

Chamomile: Cultivation in Germany

2015 | Comments Off

In Germany between 1930 and 1945, though chamomile flowers were collected, only about 6 ha were cultivated; the drug requirement was about 1000 tons. In 1955 the main regions of origin of the drug Chamomillae flos for Germany were Germany (mainly Saxony and Franconia), Hungary, the Balkan countries, the USSR, the CSR, Yugoslavia, Belgium, France, and Spain. Varieties or origins used up to the 1980s were “Holsteiner Marschenkamille” (Holstein Marsh Chamomile), “Quedlinburger Groβblütige Kamille” (Quedlinburg large-flowered chamomile), and “Erfurter Kleinblütige Kamille” (Erfurt small-flowered chamomile). Only the tetraploid variety “Bode-gold” brought the breakthrough for the use of cultivated forms in Germany in 1962. In the meantime a clear shift took place in the main cultivation areas. Today, the main suppliers are Argentina, Egypt, Hungary, Poland, and the Balkan countries; the major quantity comes from Argentina (with decreasing quantities since 1995) (). Meanwhile, a big part is imported from Egypt as well. In Germany as well, cultivation was extended after 1975. Today exclusively cultivated varieties are grown. The biggest part of these are tetraploid varieties with high (–)α-bisabolol Read more [...]

Chamomile: Plant Selection And Breeding

2015 | Comments Off

Breeding Targets and Techniques The composition of the essential oil with varying percentages of bisabolol, bisabololoxide, bisabolone, and matricine is fixed genetically. Schick and Reimann-Philipp remarked in 1957: “As far as breeding is concerned Matricaria Chamomilla has not yet been worked on.” In 1950 only the two group varieties “Quedlinburger Groβblütige Kamille” (Quedlinburg large-flowered chamomile) and “Erfurter Kleinblütige Kamille” (Erfurt small-flowered chamomile) were mentioned. Often the stability, the resistance against diseases, the germinability, the flower yield, the fact that the individual flower heads are ripe at the same time, the homogeneous flowering horizon, the stability of the flower head, and consequently the suitability for a mechanical harvest are not sufficient. Since then a rapid development has been experienced. A number of chemotypes with a varying content of matricine / chamazulene, (–)-α-bisabolol, spiroethers, and the bisabolol oxides A and B as well as bisabolone oxide A were selected. Varieties with very different breeding targets were bred. The content, especially the composition of the active principles, was worked on by precise selections. For nondestructive Read more [...]