Akar Putarwali, Batang Wali

Tinospora crispa (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae)

Tinospora crispa (L.) Diels is a woody climber with numerous protrusions on the stem. Leaves are oblong-ovate, cordate, 8-9 cm by 7-8 cm and tapering to a pointed end. Flowers are small, with 6 petals, 2 mm in length and 8-27 cm racemes. Male flowers have yellow sepals whereas female flowers have green sepals. Drupelets are red, juicy and 7-8 mm long.

Origin

Native to Malesia, Indochina, Indian subcontinent and China.

Phytoconstituents

Boropetol B, borapetoside B, C & F, jatrorhizine, magnoflorine, palmatine, protoberberine, tembolarine, diosmetin, cycloeucalenol, cycloeucalenone and others.

Traditional Medicinal Uses

It is used for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhoea and as vermifuge. In Malaysia, T. crispa extract is taken orally by Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients to treat hyperglycaemia.

Pharmacological Activities

Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antimalarial, Antiprotozoal and Hypoglycaemic.

Dosage

No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions

The plant may result in an increased risk of hepatic dysfunction due to marked elevation of liver enzymes but is reversible upon discontinuation of T. crispa.

Toxicity

No information as yet.

Contraindications

No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions

T. crispa extract showed 61.3% increase of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme inhibition after 20 min of preincubation with human liver microsomes.

[ Note: In a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial to determine the efficacy of T. crispa as an additional treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not respond to oral hypoglycaemic drugs and refused insulin injection, 20 patients received T. crispa powder in capsule form at a dose of 1 gram three times daily for six months. Twenty patients received a placebo. The results showed no evidence to support the use of T. crispa for additional therapy in such patients. Two patients had elevated levels of liver enzymes, which was reversible on discontinuing T. crispa. Patients receiving T. crispa had significant weight reduction and cholesterol elevation. Note that the study only included patients that did not respond to oral hypoglycaemic therapy.]