Archive for category Capsicum'

The preservation and production of Capsicum in Hungary

Capsicum was introduced to Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century and became an important crop in several countries, Hungary included. Like other Capsicum producing countries, there are two main types grown in Hungary: one for fresh consumption, the sweet Capsicum, and the paprika for use as a condiment. The paprika characteristics differ in several ways from the sweet Capsicum. Sweet Capsicum is mainly grown under controlled environmental conditions and is also field-grown. The paprika is only field-grown. Spice is produced from paprika after drying and milling. The production area of sweet Capsicum was about 8,000—10,000 ha during the last three to four decades. This area has decreased dramatically in the last two years; currently, it is about 4,000—4,500 ha. The production area of paprika has remained steady at around 3,000—7,000 ha for a long time. Since sweet Capsicum is grown all over the country — except in the cold, rainy areas near the western border — paprika is only grown in the two traditional regions (Szeged and Kalocsa) of the southern counties. Hungary used to be one of the most outstanding exporters of the condiment paprika. Hungary’s activity in the world market has been reduced Read more […]

Capsicum in Hungary: Production regions, cultivars, growing and processing technology

Climate of Hungary Hungary is located on the north latitude 46°—48°. It means Hungary is on the northern border of the paprika growing area. The vegetation period is relatively short. Late spring frost may occur between 15—20 April. In some cases the first autumn frost may come at the end of September, but definitely in the middle of October. Almost the whole area of the country is suitable for paprika growing given its temperature, precipitation and sunshine-hours. There are no striking differences in climate from region to region, although the sunshine-hours are the highest on the southeast part, and the precipitation is the least (about 2,000 hours and 500 mm per annum, respectively), while the sunshine-hours are less and the precipitation is more (about 1,800 hours and 700—800 mm per annum) on the western part of the country. Production regions Sweet Capsicum Sweet Capsicum can be grown in any Hungarian region except along the western border of the country where the precipitation is higher and the temperature is lower than the average. Only 8—10% of the country’s soil and climate conditions are unsuitable for growing sweet Capsicum. Nevertheless, as traditional growing regions evolved, immigrant Read more […]

Capsicum in Hungary: Processing Technology

Sweet Capsicum PRODUCTION METHODS Sweet Capsicum is produced under cover in glass or plastic greenhouses (forcing system) and in the field, depending on the environmental conditions (similar to other European countries). Forcing system Growing structures can be: glass covered or plastic covered. According to production periods we recommend the following forcing seasons: Early forcing: Sowing in September—October, transplanting in November-January to heated glass house. Mid-early forcing: Sowing in November—December, transplanting in January—March to heated plastic house. Cold forcing: Sowing at the end of February and transplanting at the end of April to unheated plastic houses. Autumn forcing: Sowing in July and transplanting in September to heated plastic houses. Growing in the open field: At first the seedlings are grown in hotbeds or in heated greenhouse usually until the middle of March. Transplanting could commence after the spring frosts approximately at the end of May. SOWING AND GROWING SEEDLINGS Using any production technology seedlings are grown under controlled conditions in seedling media (trays, pots, etc.). TRANSPLANTING Transplanting varies according to the production technology Read more […]

Adulterants, contaminants and pollutants in Capsicum products

Chilli used as a spice has agricultural and marketing specifications and also food standards in national regulations since chilli is a food, a food supplement or a food adjunct. Concerns on quality and safety emerge on account of occasional aberrations of adulteration, contamination and pollution. Relatively stable pollutants of air, water and soil get to this plant product engendered by all these three. Needless to say, adulteration is intentional and contamination incidental. The latter exceeding the limits of good agricultural and manufacturing practices changes to adulteration even if not intentional. This chapter deals with adulteration in the whole, in the form of powder and paste of chilli. The details include microscopic detection of adulterants, estimation of carotenoids and non-volatile ether extract of extracted chilli and that influenced by addition of edible oils. Contaminants specially in respect to irradiation and added colors are included. Pollutants include trace metals, pesticides, mycotoxins and microbes. Insect-infested and insect-damaged chilli may not be rare in tropical regions. Chilli is not an esoteric spice and is not very costly either. Even then, it attracts its own moderate share of adulteration, Read more […]

Post-harvest handling and processing of Capsicums

The genus Capsicum encompasses a number of species differing in size, shape, colour and pungency. Due to these differences some of them are used as vegetables, while most others are valued as condiments and culinary supplements. The post-harvest handling and processing technologies for Capsicum have developed considerably as a consequence of the increased production and newer applications of this crop. Bell peppers and a sizable quantity of chillies are consumed fresh and their harvesting indices and scientific handling protocols have been standardized. Chillies and paprika are initially dried and stored in preparation for processing. The accumulated scientific evidence shows the role of various processing factors on the quality of the processed products like chilli powder, oleoresin and colour extract. In keeping with this knowledge, process parameters have been modified to develop new technologies for obtaining superior products. The emergence of the industrial food processing sector along with newer food applications requiring tailor-made ingredients have also introduced more stringent demands for Capsicum products. R&D and the industry are poised to face the challenges. Tropical South America is believed to Read more […]

Processing of Capsicums

Standardization, grading and storage of dry chillies The Bureau of Indian Standards has outlined specified standards for dried chillies based on physical characteristics, as well as on other factors such as total ash, acid insoluble ash, non-volatile ether extract and fibre content. Under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (1954), minimum purity standards are laid down for chillies. Agmark specifications for the grading of dry chillies for export takes into account various physical, chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters (). Microbial and insect infestations are serious problems during the storage of dried Capsicum. Ethylene oxide fumigation in bulk is recognized as the best treatment to achieve practical commercial sterility (). Methyl bromide and phosphene are used as fumigants for insect control. Ionizing radiation with a dosage of 10 kGy has been shown to destroy both microorganisms and insects. A dosage of 7.5 kGy has been shown to be sufficient for eliminating fungal populations, and oleoresin yields have increased from 24.45 % to 31.61% by irradiation due to the enhanced extractibility (). As mentioned earlier, a large number of products are produced from chilli and paprika. The raw material Read more […]

Current Requirements on Paprika Powder for Food Industry

Paprika powder is one of the most important spices surpassed by only the original pepper. Seventy per cent of the spice is used for industrial purposes, and in meat products, soups, sauces and snacks. The traditional quality attributes are taste, pungency, colour intensity and stability. Due to increasing safety requirements in food processing techniques, additional attributes like microbial status and the possible occurrence of mycotoxins are gaining importance. The modern strategies in agricultural and food technological production are guided by the “field to fork”, idea. Therefore, considerations about paprika quality have to be extended to include horticultural aspects. The genus Capsicum belongs to the Solanaceae and comprises five domesticated species: C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum and C. pubescens. However, only members of the first three species are of industrial significance. The main distinctive features of the genus are the size of the fruits, the thickness of the fruit flesh, shape, colour and the pungency. Capsicum fruits are known by a considerable number of names, such as Capsicums, peppers, Spanish pepper, Cayenne pepper, chile, chillies and paprika. All names, including the Read more […]

The storage of Capsicum

Capsicum fruits, whether they are used as green or red ripe fruit, fleshy or dried, as medicine or dye, or for seed purposes, are to be stored for varying periods before being used. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this chapter to review the research work done on storage aspects of green and red ripe fruits in processed or whole fruit form. Moreover, special emphasis has been given to the storage of seeds, as Capsicum is a seed propagated crop and its productivity and quality are very much influenced by the quality of seeds used for production. Capsicum fruits, both red ripe and green, are used for imparting pungency and flavour to food. Sweet peppers are mainly used at the green stage as salad and for cooking. In addition to providing pungency and flavour to the food, Capsicum is also a good source of vitamins A and B, and has several medicinal and insecticidal properties. Recently, the paprika types have been used extensively as a source of natural dye because of their deep red fruits. Capsicum fruits, whether they are used as green or red ripe fruit, fleshy or dried, as medicine or dye or for seed purposes, are to be stored for varying periods of time before they are used. Therefore, it is very important that Read more […]

Capsicum storage for seed purpose

In India, seeds are traditionally extracted from dry fruits only at the time of sowing. The reason is that the seeds maintain viability for a longer period when they are in fruits than the seeds extracted and stored. Seeds maintain a higher germination value (up to six months) when retained in fruits and stored under ambient conditions. However, the storage of fruits for seed purposes is not commercially feasible for large-scale production, as the storage process needs large areas or storage structures and other infrastructural facilities for the maintenance of the seeds. Chilli seed is a relatively poor storer and its storability is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Factors influencing the storability of chilli seeds Several pre- and post-harvest factors influence the longevity of chilli seeds during storage. Some of these are discussed here. Cultivars Much variability is found among chilli genotypes for their seed storability. It has been observed that few varieties could maintain viability even up to 18 months and some could only last for a few months when stored under ambient conditions. This sort of cultivar difference could be made use of by the breeders while selecting the parents for the Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: Capsicum

Capsicum species (Solanaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Caspic, Cayenne, Cayenne pepper, Chili pepper, Chilli pepper, Hot pepper, Paprika, Red pepper, Tabasco pepper. Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum baccatum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum minimum Roxb., Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pavon. Pharmacopoeias Capsicum (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008, US Ph 32); Capsicum Oleoresin (US Ph 32); Refined and Quantified Capsicum Oleoresin (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Standardised Capsicum Tincture (British Ph 2009, European Ph, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4). Constituents The pungent principles of capsicum are the capsaicinoids (to which it may be standardised), present in concentrations up to 1.5%, but more usually around 0.1%. The major components are capsaicin, 6,7-dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin and homocapsaicin. Other constituents include the carotenoid pigments (capsanthin, capsorubin, carotene, lutein), vitamins including A and C, and a small amount of volatile oil. Use and indications Capsicum possesses stimulant, antispasmodic, carminative and counterirritant effects, which has led to its use in conditions such Read more […]