Archive for category Caraway'

Production of Biennial Caraway for Seed and Essential Oil

Growing areas Caraway (Carum carvi L.) occurs as wild plant within phytocoenoses of meadow type, usually in a humid coastal or mountain climate (). Such ecological conditions should be taken into account in the choice of region for caraway cultivation, and also to a certain degree, in the choice of soil type and a sequence in crop rotation. In Europe, where this species has been widely grown for over 200 years, caraway was and usually still is produced in coastal regions of the Netherlands, Germany and Poland as well as in a piedmont of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The second factor that must be considered in caraway cultivation is the character of its development, since it could be either biennial or facultatively perennial crop with a distinct juvenile phase (). Besides, there are some caraway properties typical of a wild plant, that favour its adaptation for the development in natural sites, having however a negative effect on its cultivation. Elimination of such traits is difficult, particularly in relation to non-uniform seed germination, uneven fruit ripening on plants and shattering. Caraway: Soil requirements, sequence in crop rotation and fertilization Caraway: Soil preparation, setting up of a plantation Maintenance Read more […]

Caraway: Soil requirements, sequence in crop rotation and fertilization

Caraway as a plant of high soil requirements grows and yields best on deep and warm soils, rich in humus and nutrients. The most suitable are fen soils, loess, chernozem, limestone soils and deep but not too heavy clays (). The best forecrops for caraway are considered root and vegetable plants previously supplied with a full rate of farmyard manure (20–40t/ha). Suitable are also clover, lucerne and other mixed papilionaceous crops. Besides, plants ploughed-in for green manure could also be recommended. In contrast, cereals are considered the least suitable forecrops for caraway. On the other hand caraway itself performs well as a forecrop for cereals, by leaving a field almost weed-free, and above all, due to its early harvesting there is enough time to conduct all pre-sowing agricultural practices, so essential for cereals (). Caraway is highly sensitive to soil water, considering the level of that underground and soil-bound. Too high water table and stagnant water in particular are dangerous especially in spring and may cause mass wilting of the plants. A relatively high, stable soil moisture is necessary for the adequate development of caraway since it originates from wet meadows. According to Buszczak Read more […]

Caraway: Soil preparation, setting up of a plantation

A field for caraway should be prepared with special care, considering deep penetration of its roots and also a period of 2 or even 3 years of its cultivation at the same place. Ploughing should be necessarily performed in autumn, since long-time observations provided evidently worse results if it was conducted in spring (). On deep soils there is recommendation to use standard plough provided with a chisel, or a special subsoil cultivator, working askew or across the direction of basic ploughing. In spring, agricultural practices should be carried out as soon as possible to prevent clodding and drying out of the soil top layer, and they include dragging and multiple harrowing. Cultivator is recommended only for very heavy soils, strongly stale after winter. This operation should be immediately followed by harrowing. If the soil is too loose and uneven on the surface, the use of a flat roller is required for precise sowing and to enhance capillary rise of soil moisture, and finally to obtain uniform emergence of caraway seedlings. Caraway sowing material are achenes, whose germination capacity should be at least 80%. This level can be maintained for 2–3 years, then rapidly declines (). The weight of 1000 achenes Read more […]

Caraway: Pests, Diseases and Their Control

Caraway pertains to aromatic plants grown for years in relatively large areas and its field production is often concentrated within specific particular regions. Under such circumstances this crop is more frequently attacked by pests and diseases than other medicinal plants. Pests are the major threat to caraway, especially if not controlled, they can cause a total loss of fruit yield. Deppresaria nervosa Hav. appears to be the most serious pest. Adults overwinter under tree bark, in straw left in the field, in sheds etc. In the second year of caraway vegetation the females deposit eggs into leaf folds. An emerged caterpillar, which first is of light then dark-grey colour with a visible row of black mamillae with a white border, finally turns black. Initially, caterpillars feed on the leaves, then as the plant grows, they get into umbels covering them with web, destroying the flowers and newly formed fruits. When their feeding is over, at the beginning of fruit ripening, caterpillars move down the plant and gnaw into the stem for pupation. More than ten pupae may be found within a single stem. Adults appear after 3–4 weeks in July and some time later they seek for overwintering shelters (). This is a common pest, Read more […]

Alimentary, Culinary and Industrial Uses of Caraway

 Chemical constituents and taste Spices provide of course only little contribution to the human nourishment. But they make food more tasty and enhances the appetite. The taste depends on certain chemical compounds mainly on essential oil content and composition. But not only the essential oil is responsible for the taste impression, also some of the other chemical components of caraway fruits are influencing the taste (). Beside the mentioned chemical compounds, caraway contains tocopherol and tocotrienole, phenol-carbonic acids such as caffeic acid and gentisic acid, phenols and flavones (flavonole, quercetin etc.). Description of the Taste It is well known that the sense of taste can be realized as salty, bitter, sour and sweet with the tongue. Pungency is an impression of temperature and pain. Additionally we are smelling with the olfactory nerve such odours as aromatic, fruity, flowery, resinous, but also foul or burning (). The taste and odour of caraway fruits is due to their essential oil content, which consists of two main components, the D(+)-carvone (45–60%) and the D(+)-limonene (35–55%). The latter one is not so important for the taste. To describe a taste is very difficult. Therefore many Read more […]

The use of Caraway in the kitchen and food industry

The Use in the Kitchen In Middle Europe caraway is a common spice in the kitchen but not everybody likes it. The use is limited to certain dishes and to certain regions (). Some examples are given below but the list must not necessarily be complete: salad: cabbage, Chinese cabbage vegetables (side dish): cabbage, potatoes, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, sauerkraut meat: pork (joint of pork), beef (pörkelt, goulash) poultry: goose cheese: fondue, gratin’s, raclette The reason why caraway is often used together with different species of cabbage can probably be seen in the anti-flatulent effect of caraway. The Use in Seasonings Most foods are not only seasoned with one spice but with a number of different tastes. The aroma industry is offering to the food industry a complete programme of different tastes produced of mixtures of spices, essential oils, oleoresins and all kinds off additives. The so called seasonings are compounds containing one or more spices or spice extracts, which, when added to the food, either during its manufacture or in its preparation, before it is served, enhance the natural flavour of the food and thereby increase its acceptance by the consumer. The following overlook is taken Read more […]

The Essential Oil of Caraway

The essential oil is obtained mainly of caraway fruits by steam or hydrodistillation. A good overlook about different distillation facilities is given by Lawrence (). The oil is colourless or slightly yellowish and toxic to humans even in relatively low amounts. Amounts of 4g can already cause health disturbances for adults (). Carvone may also cause allergic effects (). Instead of distillation of the ripe whole caraway fruit, it is also possible to chaff the umbels directly from the field into a container which is afterwards directly connected on a distillation unit. The essential oil yield gained in such a way was in the experiments of Hannig et al. () about 481/ha. The early harvest had no negative influence on the oil composition (60% carvone in biannual caraway). Average essential oil yield (assessed on laboratory scale by Dachler et al. () in variety tests) was around 70kg/ha, with top yields of 160kg/ha. In the contrary to earlier reported carvone contents () they observed only 30–48% carvone in the tested biannual varieties. Bazata et al. () found, that during the distillation process the relation of carvone and limonene changed. At the beginning of the distillation the essential oil had higher amounts Read more […]