In Germany between 1930 and 1945, though chamomile flowers were collected, only about 6 ha were cultivated; the drug requirement was about 1000 tons. In 1955 the main regions of origin of the drug Chamomillae flos for Germany were Germany (mainly Saxony and Franconia), Hungary, the Balkan countries, the USSR, the CSR, Yugoslavia, Belgium, France, and Spain. Varieties or origins used up to the 1980s were “Holsteiner Marschenkamille” (Holstein Marsh Chamomile), “Quedlinburger Groβblütige Kamille” (Quedlinburg large-flowered chamomile), and “Erfurter Kleinblütige Kamille” (Erfurt small-flowered chamomile). Only the tetraploid variety “Bode-gold” brought the breakthrough for the use of cultivated forms in Germany in 1962. In the meantime a clear shift took place in the main cultivation areas. Today, the main suppliers are Argentina, Egypt, Hungary, Poland, and the Balkan countries; the major quantity comes from Argentina (with decreasing quantities since 1995) (). Meanwhile, a big part is imported from Egypt as well. In Germany as well, cultivation was extended after 1975. Today exclusively cultivated varieties are grown. The biggest part of these are tetraploid varieties with high (–)α-bisabolol Read more […]
Archive for category Chamomile'
Breeding Targets and Techniques The composition of the essential oil with varying percentages of bisabolol, bisabololoxide, bisabolone, and matricine is fixed genetically. Schick and Reimann-Philipp remarked in 1957: “As far as breeding is concerned Matricaria Chamomilla has not yet been worked on.” In 1950 only the two group varieties “Quedlinburger Groβblütige Kamille” (Quedlinburg large-flowered chamomile) and “Erfurter Kleinblütige Kamille” (Erfurt small-flowered chamomile) were mentioned. Often the stability, the resistance against diseases, the germinability, the flower yield, the fact that the individual flower heads are ripe at the same time, the homogeneous flowering horizon, the stability of the flower head, and consequently the suitability for a mechanical harvest are not sufficient. Since then a rapid development has been experienced. A number of chemotypes with a varying content of matricine / chamazulene, (–)-α-bisabolol, spiroethers, and the bisabolol oxides A and B as well as bisabolone oxide A were selected. Varieties with very different breeding targets were bred. The content, especially the composition of the active principles, was worked on by precise selections. For nondestructive Read more […]
Cultivation measures such as sowing time, fertilization, weed control, and harvest have to be arranged in such a way that the yield properties and those of quality fixed in the genotype ensure an optimum development. Cultivation Procedure In 1956 Heeger still reported that with respect to cultivation chamomile had been worked on to a small extent only. Over the past 40 years rapid development could be observed. Preference is given to chamomile being cultivated. In most countries extensive field cultivation with mechanized sowing, nursing, harvest, and processing has gained acceptance. In nearly all companies specializing in cultivation, technological innovations have been tested and introduced repeatedly. Often technological solutions are quite specific to the companies and having been adapted to the locations and varieties were developed for the individual sections of production. Therefore, a compilation of a generally applicable sample technology does not seem to be recommended. Some experiences from various countries of cultivation are shown in the paragraphs to follow. Presently three basic variants — being mostly complementary to each other — are applied: autumn sowing, spring sowing, and cultivation of Read more […]
Chamomile has long been one of the most important medicinal plants cultivated in Slovakia. Its cultivation started in the beginning of the 1950s in the former Czechoslovak Republic. Diploid variety Bohémia with a high content of chamazulene and α-bisaboloxide A and B was sown. In 1957 the tetraploid variety Pohoelicky Velkokvety with similar characteristics, as far as efficacious compounds are concerned, was bred, but this variety was restricted because of the high degree of disintegration. Chamomile is a plant with a wide growing range and can be grown in the Slovak Republic almost everywhere. It grows best in warmer areas protected from wind with plentiful sunshine and mean yearly precipitation ranging from 550 to 800 mm. Soils rich in nutrients and humus, heavy to mild, mold to luvisol character are the most suitable. After almost 40 years of experience, the crops reached the required level of market production; the cultivation of chamomile in beet and potato regions was proved to be the most suitable. With regard to the initial slow growth of chamomile, it is necessary to choose the foregoing agricultural plant that leaves the land weed-free and in a good state. From this point of view root crops, peas, Read more […]
Traditional Use Chamomile has been known for centuries and is well established in therapy. In traditional folk medicine it is found in the form of chamomile tea, which is drunk internally in cases of painful gastric and intestinal complaints connected with convulsions such as diarrhea and flatulence, but also with inflammatory gastric and intestinal diseases such as gastritis and enteritis. Externally chamomile is applied in the form of hot compresses to badly healing wounds, such as for a hip bath with abscesses, furuncles, hemorrhoids, and female diseases; as a rinse of the mouth with inflammations of the oral cavity and the cavity of the pharynx; as chamomile steam inhalation for the treatment of acne vulgaris and for the inhalation with nasal catarrhs and bronchitis; and as an additive to baby baths. In Roman countries it is quite common to use chamomile tea even in restaurants or bars and finally even in the form of a concentrated espresso. This is also a good way of fighting against an upset stomach due to a sumptuous meal, plenty of alcohol, or nicotine. In this case it is not easy to draw a line and find out where the limit to luxury is. Clinic and practice Preliminary remark The suitability of the empirical Read more […]
Medical Uses This herb is used internally for the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system and for its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and antispasmodic effects. It is used externally for skin and mucous membrane inflammation and hemorrhoids. Chamomile is used for babies to help with sleep, colic, and teething. Historical Uses Chamomile is also known as scented mayweed and German chamomile. Many cultures associated chamomile with healing. In the well-known story, Peter Rabbit’s mother gave Peter chamomile tea to help relieve his stomachache. Chamomile has been used for stomach discomforts, colic, and teething. It also has been used to promote relaxation. Growth Chamomile is an annual herb of the aster or composite family. Easy to grow in the garden, chamomile likes acidic soil, lots of sun, and good drainage. It grows to about 3 feet tall and has small daisylike flowers. The leaves are very fragile and feathery. Chamomile: Part Used • Flower heads Major Chemical Compounds • Bisabolol • Chamazulene • Flavonoids: quercetin and apigenin • Volatile oils () Chamomile: Clinical Uses Chamomile is used internally for the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. It is also used internally Read more […]