Archive for category Cinnamon'

Indonesian Cassia (Indonesian Cinnamon)

Cinnamomum burmannii Nees – Indonesian cinnamon, Indonesian cassia, Java cassia, Fagot cassia, Padang cinnamon, Batavia cassia, Korintji cassia, cassia vera. Indonesian cassia or Indonesian cinnamon is the dried bark of Cinnamomum burmannii which is grown in the Malaysia-Indonesia regions and commercially cultivated in the Indonesian islands. It is grown most extensively in the Sumatera, Java and Jambi Islands and extends up to Timor, growing from sea level to about 2000 m. The main centre of cultivation is the Padang area of Sumatera, at altitudes of 500–1300 m. A variant of Cinnamomum burmannii, which has red young leaves, is grown at a higher elevation in the region of Mount Korintji (Kerinci). This cassia is of better quality and is traded in the international market as Korintji (or Kerinci) cassia. The form having green young leaves is grown at lower elevations, and is referred to in the international market as Padang cassia, Batavia cassia or cassia vera. In a small scale it is also cultivated in Phillippines. The main centres of cultivation are Jambi and west Sumatera, which have around 59,490 ha and 28,893 ha areas respectively, producing around 20,185 t and 18,525 t of cassia bark, respectively. In Read more […]

Indonesian Cassia (Indonesian Cinnamon): Production

Light, rich sandy loam soil is best suited for the cultivation of Indonesian cinnamon for the production of the high quality bark. Growth is reported to be good in andosol, latosol and organosol soil types. But many small holders’ plantations are on steep hillsides where the soil is stony, lateritie and less suitable for the production of high quality bark. The annual rainfall of the hilly regions of Padang is about 2000–2500 mm with short dry periods in May and September. The growth is slower at higher altitudes, while at low elevations the trees grow faster, but the bark is thinner and of lower quality and value. Indonesian cassia is cultivated very similarly to that of Sri Lankan cinnamon except in the matter of harvesting ). Cassia plants are raised from seeds. Vegetative propagation is possible through cutting and layering but it is not practiced as such plants produce thinner bark of lesser quality. Ripe fruits are collected from selected mother trees having thick bark and good aroma. Such trees are covered with nets in order to protect the fruits from birds, which are attracted to cinnamon fruits. Fruits are harvested at full ripening (when they become bluish black in colour), heaped for two or three days Read more […]

Indonesian Cassia: Pests, Diseases

Many diseases and pests of C. verum also attack Cinnamomum burmannii (). The most serious disease is the stripe canker (cancer) caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi that often leads to widespread damage to plants (Djafaruddin and Hanafiah, 1975). Other diseases include pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor syn. C. javanicum), white rot (Fomes lignosus), rust (Accidium cinnamomi) and anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). A list of diseases occurring in Indonesia is given below. As a tropical country Indonesia’s climate is conducive to the development of many pathogens. Usually, cinnamon grows in the wet climate with a relative humidity of 80–95%, which predisposes the plant to many pathogens. However, data on yield loss caused by pathogens in Indonesia is still very limited. Diseases commonly found on cinnamon plants in Indonesia are summarised below. Red rust (Cephaleuros sp.) Symptoms: Greyish orange or brownish orange spots on the upper leaf surface. On top of the spots can be seen the spores or conidia. On the lower leaf surface the spots appear brown. Black rust (Puccinia cinnamomi) Symptoms: Wet greyish brown irregular spots on the lower leaf surface. The spores of the fungi are clearly seen. Grey leaf Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: Cinnamon

Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. and its varieties (Lauraceae) Synonym(s) and related species Cinnamomum cassia: Cassia, Chinese cinnamon, False cinnamon, Cassia lignea, Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees, Cinnamomum pseudomelastoma auct. non Liao. Cinnamomum verum: Canela, Ceylon cinnamon, Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Bl. (known as Batavian cinnamon or Panang cinnamon), Cinnamomum loureiroi Nees, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees., Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume. Pharmacopoeias Cassia Oil (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Ceylon Cinnamon Bark Oil (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Ceylon Cinnamon Leaf Oil (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Cinnamon (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Cinnamon Tincture (British Ph 2009, European Ph, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4). Constituents The bark of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum verum contains volatile oil mainly composed of trans-cinnamaldehyde, with cinnamylacetate, phenylpropylacetate, salicylaldehyde and methyleugenol. Diterpenes including cinncassiols, and tannins such as cinnamtannins, are also present. Use and indications Both varieties of cinnamon are mainly used for digestive disorders such as diarrhoea, Read more […]