Archive for category Ginger'

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries

Ginger requires a warm and humid climate. The plant thrives well from sea level to an altitude of 1,500 m in the Himalayas, the optimum elevation being between 300 and 900 m. A well-distributed rainfall (150 to 300 cm) during the growing season and dry spells during land preparation as well as before harvest are required for large-scale cultivation of the crop. In areas receiving less rainfall, the crop needs regular irrigation. Ginger can be grown in a wide range of well-drained soils of at least 30 cm depth, ranging from heavy laterite loams to clayey loam. Laterite loams containing not more than 30 percent sand or 20 percent clay and free from gravel have given higher yields. Panigrahi and Patro (1985) studied the performance of five ginger cultivars in three soil types in Orissa, India, and reported that in a sandy loam red soil, the cultivar Thingpuri gave the highest yield of 22 t/ha. Cho et al. (1987) recorded higher ginger yield in an alluvial plain area than in hilly or mountain foothill areas. Yield was high in soils having more than 1 m depth and with good drainage, and was negatively correlated with ploughing depth and soil moisture content. Liu and Gao (1987) studied the arsenic content in red soils Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Maturity and Harvest

Harvest maturity varies according to the end use. If the rhizomes are for vegetable use or for the preparation of such products as ginger preserves and candy, harvesting should be done 4 to 5 months after planting. For dry ginger production and for distillation of oil or solvent extraction of oleoresin, harvesting is done 8 to 9 months after planting. Harvesting is delayed at higher elevations, in cooler climates, and under irrigation. Maturity studies were conducted in four cultivars at seven stages starting from 165 to 270 days after planting. Dry ginger recovery was highly correlated with crop duration. Dry ginger recovery was highest at 270 days after planting, and a dry recovery around 20 percent is essential to obtain an attractive marketable product. The percentage of oleoresin, oil, and fiber contents was highest at 165 days after planting, whereas the yield per hectare of oleoresin and oil varied with cultivars, and the highest was found at 270, 195, 225, and 225 days after planting in cultivars Rio de Janeiro, Maran, Kuruppampady, and Wynad local, respectively. For vegetable purposes, the crop could be harvested from 6 months onward () Jayachandran et al. (1980) noted highest yield of green ginger/plant Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Intercropping and Rotation

Ginger is grown as a pure crop as well as an intercrop or in rotation with other crops. In Kerala it is grown as an undercrop in coconut and arecanut gardens, in coffee estates, and in rice fallows. In irrigated areas, ginger is grown in rotation with chilies, vegetables, groundnut, ragi, and maize. In Kerala as well as in Sri Lanka ginger forms a component of the homestead farming, and is grown mixed with a variety of crops. Ginger is a very successful crop component in intercropping and multicropping systems. It is intercropped with vegetables (such as cabbage, beans, cucumber, and lady’s finger), pulses (such as pigeon pea and black gram), cereals (maize and finger millet), oil seeds (castor, soybean, and sunflower) and with crops such as tobacco, pineapple, tapioca, taro, Discoria, and Amorphophallus. It can also be grown as a mixed crop with castor, finger millet, maize, and red gram. Chilies-ginger — mixed cropping is prevalent in many areas. Nizam and Jayachandran (1977) in Kerala, studied the effect of seed rhizome size and varieties on the quality of ginger under open conditions and as an intercrop. Three sizes of seed rhizomes (5, 10, and 15 g) of ginger cultivars Kuruppampady, Maran, Nedu-mangadu, and Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Mulching

Mulching of beds with green leaves is an important and essential operation in ginger cultivation. The effect of mulching on growth and yield of ginger has already been established from various studies. Mulching is essential for weed control, for moisture conservation and to protect the beds from the beating action of rain. Heavy mulch can change the physical and chemical environment of the soil underneath, resulting in the increased availability of P and K. Mulching increased the germination and growth of plants in terms of height and number of tillers. Weed growth in the control plots was much higher than the plots mulched. Applications of leaf mulch immediately after planting and 6 weeks after using a total of 20 t/ha of green leaves resulted in 200 percent increase in yield over the nonmulched crop, and this was found sufficient in the ginger-growing areas of the higher elevations of Western Ghats, South India. In the plains, mulching the crop with 30 t/ha of green leaves has been recommended. Immediately after planting, the beds should be mulched with 15 t/ha of green leaves, which is repeated with 7.5 t/ha each at 2 and 4 months after planting. Mulching is done coinciding with weeding, top dressing, and earthing Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Nutrient Requirements

For ginger crop, the requirement of nitrogen (N) is the most critical among the major nutrients. Although the nutrient is directly available to the plant in nitrate form, it is easily lost by leaching. Under tropical conditions, the loss by leaching and denitrification is very high. At the same time, the nitrate N moves upward with the capillary rise of water during drought. Ammonium ions perform better than nitrates under heavy leaching situations. Unlike N, phosphorus, (P), is highly immobile in the soil because of its reaction with iron and aluminum hydroxides. Therefore, the amount of phosphatic fertilizer needed for the crop is relatively high. For a short-duration, quick-growing crop like ginger, fertilizer containing a high proportion of water-soluble P205 is needed for a better yield. When ginger is grown as a homestead crop, potassium, (K), nutrition plays an important role. Only under high rates of K application can the crop be grown successfully under shade conditions. Secondary nutrients are also essential for the healthy growth of ginger. However, deficiency of secondary nutrients is less general. Since very large quantities of FYM and leaf mulch are applied to a ginger crop, the micronutrient requirements Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Shade

The crop prefers light shade for good growth, but shade is not absolutely necessary. Jayachandran et al. (1991) investigated the effect of shade on the yield of ginger cv. Rio de Janeiro by growing plants under no shade (open) and 25, 50, and 75 percent shade. Shade was provided by coconut leaves spread on a pandal (shelter). At harvest (8 months after planting), the fresh rhizome yield was highest under 25 percent shade and lowest under 75 percent shade (20,093 and 10,778 kg/ha, respectively). The yield under open conditions was similar to that under 50 percent shade. Dry ginger recovery was highest under 25 percent shade (2,733 kg/ha). Screening of ginger for shade tolerance was done with six cultivars (Maran, Kurup-pampadi, Himachal, Rio de Janeiro, Nedumangad, and Amballore local) under four shade levels (0, 25, 50, and 75 percent). This study confirmed the shade-loving nature of ginger, registering a significantly higher yield under different shade levels than under open, with 25 percent shade recording the highest value. The quality of ginger rhizomes improved when grown under shade. Based on the rhizome yield, the cultivars adapted to each of the shade levels were identified as Kuruppampadi and Himachal (0 Read more […]

Ginger Production in India and Other South Asian Countries: Seeds and Seed Rate

In ginger, rhizomes are used for planting. The rate of seed rhizome varies from 900 to 1,500 kg/ha. For selection and preservation of seeds, the following method is recommended in Kerala, India (KAU, 1993). Mark healthy and disease-free plants in the field when the crop is 6 to 8 months old and still green. Select the best rhizomes free from pests and diseases from the marked plants. Harvest them separately and handle seed rhizomes carefully to avoid damage to buds. Soak the selected rhizomes for 30 minutes in a solution of Mancozeb and Malathion to give a final concentration of 0.3 percent for the former and 0.1 percent for the latter. Dry the treated rhizomes in shade by spreading on a floor and then store in pits lined with sand or sawdust. It is advisable to spread layers of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla. Pits are covered with coconut fronds. Examine the stored rhizomes at monthly intervals and remove the rhizomes that show signs of rotting. This will help to keep the inoculum level low. Also treat the seed rhizomes in the same manner before planting. Randhawa and Nadpuri (1970) suggested the seed rate of 1,250 kg/ha. For plains and lower altitudes, 1,500 to 1,800 kg, and at higher altitudes, (>1000 m) 2,000 Read more […]

Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)

Medical Uses Ginger is used for nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and inflammation. It may help to prevent cancer. Historical Uses Greek bakers imported ginger from the Orient to make gingerbread. Spanish mariners brought ginger to the New World. Growth Ginger is cultivated in tropical climates. Ginger: Part Used • The knotted and branched rhizome (an underground stem) called the root. Major Chemical Compounds • Volatile oils, particularly zingiberene, bisabolene, gingerols, and shogaols • Niacin • Vitamin A Ginger: Clinical Uses Ginger is used for nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and inflammation. It also has anticancer effects. Ginger has been shown to relieve nausea and vomiting during pregnancy without adverse effects. It is approved by the German Commission E and the World Health Organization (WHO) for “prevention of motion sickness.” WHO also has approved ginger for postoperative nausea, pernicious vomiting in pregnancy, and seasickness, whereas the German Commission E approved ginger only for dyspepsia and does not recommend its use during pregnancy. Mechanism of Action Ginger does not influence the inner ear or the oculomotor system; apparently it exerts its antiemetic effect Read more […]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Ginger is the underground rhizome of the tropical flowering plant Zingiber officinale. The term officinale in the Latin name of a plant indicates that it was sold by apothecaries in past times and thus has a long history of medicinal use. Zingiber means horn-shaped in Sanskrit and refers to the shape of the ginger rhizome. Ginger has a sharp, sweet flavour and is used to flavour foods and drinks. The oil of ginger root contains the sesquiterpenes zingiberene and ƛ-bisabolene whilst the oleoresin contains a group of pungent phenolic compounds called gingerols and their degradation products. The gingerols are widely regarded as the components of ginger and ginger extracts that are responsible for any pharmacological actions. The gingerols are structurally related to capsaicin in chilli peppers and they bind to the same pain receptors (vanilloid receptor 1, VR1) that are abundant in the mouth and skin. Activation of VR1 receptors is responsible for the searing sensation of eating chilli peppers and also presumably for the pungency of ginger. The chemical structures of capsaicin and several gingerols may be found in Dedov et al. (2002). These same VR1 receptors may also be largely responsible for the chest pain experienced Read more […]

Zingiber officinale

Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) Common Ginger Description Zingiber officinale Roscoe is an herbaceous plant that grows up to 1.2 m high and with an underground rhizome. The stem grows above ground and leaves are narrow, long, lanceolate, with distinct venation pattern and pointed apex. Flowers are white or yellowish-green, streaked with purple and fragrant. Origin Originate from tropical Asia, widely cultivated in the tropics. Phytoconstituents Gingerol, zingiberene, farnesene, camphene, neral, nerol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, geraniol, geranyl acetate and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses Ginger is the folk remedy for anaemia, nephritis, tuberculosis, and antidote to Arisaema and Pinellia. Sialogogue when chewed, causes sneezing when inhaled and rubefacient when applied externally. Antidotal to mushroom poisoning, ginger peel is used for opacity of the cornea. The juice is used as a digestive stimulant and local application in ecchymoses. Underground stem is used to treat stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, nose bleeds, rheumatism, coughs, blood in stools, to improve digestion, expel intestinal gas, and stimulate appetite. The rhizomes are used to treat bleeding, chest congestion, cholera, cold, diarrhoea, dropsy, dysmenorrhoea, Read more […]