Medical Uses Goldenseal is used for infections of the mucous membranes, digestive disorders, gastritis, peptic ulcers, colitis, and traveler’s diarrhea. It has been used to treat streptococcus, staphylococcus, and bacterial vaginosis. Goldenseal’s major constituent (berberine) has also been effective in treating candidiasis (yeast infections). Scientists have disproved the rumor that goldenseal masks morphine in urine testing. Historical Uses Sometimes called “poor man’s ginseng,” goldenseal was discovered by Cherokee Indians who used it for eyewashes, acne, and eczema. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations cites goldenseal as one of the best-selling herbs internationally. It is very bitter. Growth Goldenseal is found in wooded areas in eastern North America, but it is endangered because of overharvesting. The plant prefers moist soil and shade. Part Used • Root Major Chemical Compounds • Alkaloids of berberine and hydrastine Goldenseal: Clinical Uses Goldenseal is used for infections of the mucous membranes, digestive disorders, gastritis, peptic ulcers, colitis, and traveler’s diarrhea. It has been used to treat streptococcus, staphylococcus, and bacterial vaginosis. Werbach Read more […]
Archive for category Goldenseal'
Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Hidrastis, Hydrastis, Orange root, Yellow root. Xanthorhiza simplicissima Marsh. Pharmacopoeias Goldenseal (US Ph 32); Goldenseal Rhizome (European Ph 2008); Goldenseal Root (British Ph 2009); Powdered Goldenseal (US Ph 32); Powdered Goldenseal Extract (The United States Ph 32). Constituents The rhizome of goldenseal contains the isoquinoline alkaloids hydrastine and berberine, to which it may be standardised, and also berberastine, hydrastinine, canadine (tetrahydroberberine), canalidine and others. Use and indications Used for inflammatory and infective conditions, such as amoebic dysentery and diarrhoea; gastric and liver disease. The alkaloids are antibacterial, amoebicidal and fungicidal. For details on the uses of berberine, a major constituent of goldenseal, see berberine. Pharmacokinetics In several in vitro studies, goldenseal root has been identified as a potent inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4, but more modest inhibitory effects were seen clinically with the CYP3A4 probe substrate, midazolam. Two studies in healthy subjects, found that goldenseal, given for 14 to 28 days, reduced the metabolism or urinary Read more […]
Pregnancy Use Contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation. In addition to the preceding concerns about bilirubin, berberine has caused uterine contractions in pregnant and non-pregnant experimental models. A recent in vivo study using 65-fold the average human oral dose of goldenseal investigated effects on gestation and birth and found no increase in implantation loss or malformation. The authors conclude that the low bioavailability of goldenseal from the gastrointestinal tract was likely to explain the differences between in vitro and in vivo effects in pregnancy. Hydrastine (0.5 g) has also been found to induce labour in pregnant women. Until more pharmacokinetic studies are done, goldenseal is best avoided in pregnancy. Practice Points / Patient Counselling • Goldenseal has been used traditionally as an antidiarrheal agent and digestive stimulant. • It has been used topically as a wash for sore or infected eyes and as a mouth rinse. • Goldenseal is a bitter digestive stimulant that improves bile flow and improves liver function. • Most clinical evidence has been conducted using the chemical constituent berberine. This data has shown effectiveness against diarrhea, congestive heart failure, Read more […]
Clinical note — Berberine absorption Berberine is poorly absorbed, with up to 5% bioavailability. In vitro data has clearly demonstrated that berberine is a potent antibacterial; however, in vivo data has established low bioavailability. Berberine has been shown to upregulate the expression and function of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Pgp belongs to the super family of ATP-binding cassette transporters that are responsible for the removal of unwanted toxins and metabolites from the cell. It appears that Pgp in normal intestinal epithelia greatly reduces the absorption of berberine in the gut. In vivo and in vitro methods have been used to determine the role of Pgp in berberine absorption by using the known Pgp inhibitor cyclosporin A. Co-administration increased berberine absorption six-fold and clearly demonstrated the role of Pgp in absorption. Increased expression of Pgp can lead to cells displaying multi-drug resistance. As previously reported a certain flavonolignan in many Berberis spp. has the ability to inhibit the expression of multi-drug resistant efflux pumps allowing berberine and certain antibiotics to be more effective. Adverse Reactions Goldenseal is generally regarded as safe Read more […]
Clinical Use Goldenseal has not been significantly investigated under clinical trial conditions, so evidence is derived from traditional, in vitro and animal studies. Many of these have been conducted on the primary alkaloids. All results are for the isolated compound berberine, and although this compound appears to havevarious demonstrable therapeutic effects, extrapolation of these results to crude extracts of goldenseal is premature. It should also be noted that equivalent doses of the whole extract of goldenseal are exceptionally high. DIARRHOEA A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial examined the effect of berberine alone (100 mg four times daily) and in combination with tetracycline for acute watery diarrhea in 400 patients. Patients were divided into four groups and given tetracycline, tetracycline plus berberine, berberine or placebo; 185 patients tested positive for cholera and those in the tetracycline and tetracycline plus berberine groups achieved a significant reduction in diarrhea after 16 hours and up to 24 hours. The group given berberine alone showed a significant reduction in diarrhea volume (1 L) and a 77% reduction in cAMP in stools. Noticeably fewer patients in the tetracycline and Read more […]
Historical Note Goldenseal is indigenous to North America and was traditionally used by the Cherokees and then by early American pioneers. Preparations of the root and rhizome were used for gastritis, diarrhea, vaginitis, dropsy, menstrual abnormalities, eye and mouth inflammation, and general ulceration. In addition to this, the plant was used for dyeing fabric and weapons. Practitioners of the eclectic school created a high demand for goldenseal around 1847. This ensured the herb’s ongoing popularity in Western herbal medicine, but unfortunately led to it being named a threatened species in 1997. Today, most high-quality goldenseal is from cultivated sources. Common Name Goldenseal Other Names Eye root, jaundice root, orange root, yellow root Botanical Name / Family Hydrastis canadensis (family Ranunculaceae) Plant Parts Used Root and rhizome Chemical Components Isoquinoline alkaloids, including hydrastine (1.5-5%), berberine (0.5-6%) and canadine (tetrahydroberberine, 0.5-1.0%). Other related alkaloids include canadaline, hydrastidine, corypalmineand isohydrastidine. Clinical note — Isoquinoline alkaloids Isoquinoline alkaloids are derived from phenylalanine or tyrosine and are most frequently found Read more […]