Archive for category Hawthorn'

Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, Crataegus laevigata)

Hawthorn: Medical Uses Hawthorn is used as a heart tonic and for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and angina. Historical Uses Hawthorn was the symbol of hope and happiness in ancient Greece and Rome. Growth This shrub grows in temperate zones in Europe and in the United States. Parts Used • Berries • Flower heads • Leaves Major Chemical Compounds • Flavonoids • Oligomeric procyanidins • Cardiotonic amines • Anthocyanins Hawthorn: Clinical Uses Hawthorn is used as a heart tonic and for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and angina. Mechanism of Action Flavonoids prevent destruction of collagen, prevent plaque buildup, and strengthen blood vessels. Inotropic in nature, they help the heart muscle to contract. Anthocyanins inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation and platelet aggregation, which protects against heart disease. They help to treat vascular disorders and also capillary fragility. Flavonoids cause smooth muscles of coronary vessels to dilate, increasing blood flow and decreasing angina. Proanthocyanidins in the flower heads inhibit biosynthesis of thromboxane A2. Hawthorn: Dosage Hawthorn extracts are standardized to 2.2 percent flavonoids or 18 percent Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: Hawthorn

Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC, Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (Rosaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Crataegus, Haw, May, Weissdorn, Whitethorn. Crataegus oxyacantha auct, Crataegus oxyacanthoides Thuill. Pharmacopoeias Hawthorn Berries (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Hawthorn Leaf and Flower (British Ph 2009, European Ph, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4); Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Dry Extract (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008); Hawthorn Leaf with Flower (US Ph 32); Quantified Hawthorn Leaf and Flower Liquid Extract (British Ph 2009, European Ph, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4). Constituents The leaves and flowers of hawthorn are usually standardised to their flavonoid content, and the berries may be standardised to their procyanidin content. Other flavonoids present include quercetin, isoquercetin and their glycosides, and rutin. Other constituents include catechins and epicatechin dimers, polyphenolic acid derivatives including chlorogenic and caffeic acids, phenethylamine, dopamine, and ursolic and oleanolic acid triterpenenoid derivatives. Use and indications Hawthorn extracts are used as a cardiotonic, mild anti-hypertensive and antisclerotic. Pharmacokinetics No Read more […]

Hawthorn: Dosage. Interactions. Practice Points

Dosage Range • Infusion of dried herb: 0.2-2 g three times daily. • Tincture of leaf (1:5): 3.5-17.5 mL/day. • Fluid extract (1:2): 3-6 mL/day. • Herpes simplex outbreak: 4 mL three times daily at the first sign of infection for a maximum of 2 days. Toxicity No target toxicity to 100-fold the human dose of the WS 1442 extract is defined. This is in contrast to inotropic drugs, such as digoxin, which generally have a low therapeutic index. Adverse Reactions Sweating, nausea, fatigue and a rash on the hands have been reported in one clinical trial using a commercial preparation containing 30 mg hawthorn extract standardised to 1 mg procyanidins. Headache, sweating, dizziness, palpitations, sleepiness, agitation, and gastrointestinal symptoms have also been reported. Significant Interactions Controlled studies are not available; therefore, interactions are based on evidence of activity and are largely theoretical and speculative. CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES Hawthorn may theoretically potentiate the effects of cardiac glycosides, as both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that it has positive inotropic activity. Furthermore, the flavonoid components of hawthorn may also affect P-glycoprotein function Read more […]

Hawthorn: Uses

Clinical Use CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE There is considerable experimental and clinical evidence supporting the use of hawthorn as an effective treatment for congestive cardiac failure in patients with slight, mild limitation of activity who are comfortable at rest or with mild exertion (i.e. NYHA class II). A meta-analysis of rigorous clinical trials of the use of hawthorn extract to treat patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA classes I-III) included eight trials involving 632 subjects. The results of the meta-ana lysis showed that treatment with standardised hawthorn extracts produced significant improvement in maximal workload, pressure-heart rate product, as well as symptoms such as dyspnoea and fatigue as compared with placebo. The hawthorn extract most commonly used in these trials was WS 1442, which is standardised to 18.8% oligomeric procyanidins. In some cases, hawthorn extract was used as an adjunct to standard therapy (such as diuretics) and the daily dose ranged from 160 mg to 1800 mg. A review of the results of 13 clinical trials published from 1981 to 1996, involving over 839 patients, suggests that a daily dose of 900 mg hawthorn extract improves exercise tolerance, anaerobic threshold and ejection Read more […]

Hawthorn: Background. Actions

Historical Note The name ‘hawthorn’ comes from ‘hedgethorn’, after its use as a living fence in much of Europe. Dioscorides and Paracelsus praised hawthorn for its heart-strengthening properties and it is also known in TCM. It has since been shown to have many different positive effects on the heart and is a popular prescription medicine in Germany for heart failure. Common Name Hawthorn Other Names Aubepine, bianco spino, crataegi (azarolus, flos, folium, folium cum flore [flowering top], fructus [berry], nigra, pentagyna, sinaica boiss), English hawthorn, Chinese hawthorn, fructus oxyacanthae, fructus spinae albae, hagedorn, hedgethorn, maybush, maythorn, meidorn, oneseed hawthorn, shanzha, weissdorn, whitehorn Botanical Name / Family Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus cuneata, Crataegus oxyacantha, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus pinnatifida (family Rosaceae [Rose]) Plant Parts Used Extracts of the leaf and flower are most commonly used, although the fruit (berries) may also be used. Chemical Components Leaves and flowers contain about 1% flavonoids, such as rutin, quercitin, vitexin, hyperisise, 1-3% oligomeric procyanidins including catechin and epicatechin, triterpenes, sterols, polyphenols, coumarins, tannins. Read more […]