Archive for category Magnolia'

Distribution patterns in Magnolia

A brief history of taxonomic studies The genus Magnolia L. ranges widely in eastern and southeast Asia and in the New World in the southeastern United States, the West Indies, Mexico, and Central America to northern South America. Because of its remarkable discontinuous distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America, Magnolia has attracted the attention of biologists. The first published reference to the similarities of species between eastern Asia and eastern North America appears in a Linnaean dissertation published in the mid-eighteenth century (). Thunberg (1784) made a brief mention that many Japanese plants occurred in Europe, America, and the East Indies, but particularly in the northern, and adjacent, vast Chinese region. Among the plants he cited was Magnolia glauca L., which he believed to be in the two areas. Later, in his travels in the United States, Luigi Castiglioni noted the affinities of many American plants (including Magnolia) that he had observed growing with those in Japan. Since then, many authors, such as Pursh (1814), Nuttall (1818), Gray (1840), Miquel (1867), Engler (1879) and Diels (1900), and many recent workers — Hu (1935), Hara (1966), Li (1952), Wood (1971), Raven (1972), Read more […]

Classification and distribution patterns in Magnolia

Classification systems Specific delimitation within Magnolia has been a subject of persistent debate and disagreement among taxonomists, botanists, horticulturists, and morphologists for at least the last half of the twentieth century. Recently, molecular systematists have joined the debate (). The number of species in the genus differs according to different classification systems of the family Magnoliaceae. Several systems have been proposed for the Magnoliaceae in recent years. In his last treatment, Dandy () recognized 12 genera in the Magnoliaceae, and about 70–80 species. The extremes were shown by the classification of Nooteboom (), where only 3 genera and about 150 species in the genus Magnolia were recognized, and Liu (= Y.W. Law) (2000) recognized 16 genera in the family Magnoliaceae and about 90 species in Magnolia alone. The differences between these two systems are mainly based on the importance assigned to certain morphological features or to some molecular evidence. In Nooteboom’s classification of Magnoliaceae, little significance is attached to the position of the inflorescence and the molecular data, and he places all genera except Pachylarnax and Liriodendron in his large genus Magnolia. Liu’s Read more […]

Commercial cultivation of Magnolia

Main uses and habits of Magnolia Most Magnolia species have economic importance (). They have been extensively introduced and cultivated as ornamental plants (e.g., Magnolia grandiflora and M. coco), timbers with relatively high quality (e.g., Magnolia officinalis var. biloba), medicinal plants (e.g., a famous Chinese traditional medicinal material Flos Magnoliae is from Magnolia liliflora), and natural resources of stacte, a sweet spice used in making incense, and flavour (e.g., M. cylindrica), for a long time (Table Uses and main habits of Magnolia ). Almost all Magnolia species are valuable planted ornamentals. For example, Magnolia grandiflora is native of the middle and southern sections of Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, and the upper districts of Florida, USA, and has been extensively planted worldwide. It is a noble urban landscape tree because it is resistant to acid deposition (). In China, some Magnolia species, e.g., M. elliptigemmata and M. pilocarpa, have become new resources of medicinal Biond Magnolia Flower (Flos Magnoliae), besides Magnolia liliflora (). Phytochemical studies of Magnolia have reported that the leaves, fruits, barks, and woods of many species, e.g., Magnolia grandiflora, Read more […]

Environmental factors for growing Magnolia

Siting Many Magnolia species with large-sized leaves seem to be wind-tolerant, but their branches are somewhat brittle. Trees growing in sheltered situations are more prone to damage by freak wind gusts than those growing in open situations, where adaptation to environment brings about the development of shorter and stouter branches and sometimes smaller leaves than usual. In a part-shaded situation, however, colored flowers of Magnolia are darker and retain their color better. For example, M. × loebneri “Leonard Messel” is at its best when it flowers during a sunless period or in a shaded situation. When grown in the open it loses much of its color when warm sunny weather coincides with its flowering season (). Magnolia grandiflora is also moderately tolerant of shade. It can endure considerable shade in early life but needs more light as it becomes older (). It will invade pine or hardwood stands and is able to reproduce under a closed canopy. It will not reproduce under its own shade. Once established, it can maintain or increase its presence in stands by sprouts and seedlings that grow up through openings that occur sporadically in the canopy (). Magnolia grandiflora has been migrating onto mesic upland Read more […]

Propagation of Magnolia

Seed sowing and seedling transplantation A simple approach to propagation or reproduction of Magnolia is from seed. For example, summer-flowering M. sinensis and other members of the section Oyama are usually prolific seed bearers. In China, seed sowing is a popular method for commercial cultivation of medicinal M. lilifiora, as Biond Magnolia Flower (Flos Magnoliae). Many Magnolia species are prolific seed producers, and good seed crops are usually produced every year. For example, trees of Magnolia grandiflora as young as 10 years can produce seed, but optimum seed production does not occur until age 25. Cleaned seeds range from 12 800 to 15 000/kg. Seed viability averages about 50%. The relatively heavy seeds are disseminated by birds and mammals, but some may be spread by heavy rains (). Magnolia grandiflora is pollinated by insects (). In order to harvest Magnolia seed, it is important to know the seed-ripening date of each species. For example, the seeds of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia hypoleuca can be collected in late September, as soon as the carpels on the fruit cones begin to split longitudinally to reveal the bright orange, scarlet, or crimson seeds. Delay in harvesting may result in rapid losses Read more […]