Archive for category Red clover'

Herb-Drug Interactions: Red clover

Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Cow clover, Meadow clover, Purple clover, Trefoil. Trifolium borysthenicum Gruner, Trifolium bracteatum Schousb., Trifolium lenkoranicum (Grossh.) Rosk., Trifolium ukrainicum Opp. Not to be confused with melilot, which is known as sweet clover. Pharmacopoeias Powdered Red Clover (US Ph 32); Powdered Red Clover extract (US Ph 32); Red Clover (US Ph 32); Red Clover Tablets (The United States Ph 32). Constituents Red clover flowers contain isoflavones, to which they may be standardised. The major isoflavones are biochanin A and formononetin, with small amounts of genistein and daidzein and others, and their glycoside conjugates. Other constituents include clovamides, coumestrol, and the natural coumarins medicagol and coumarin. Use and indications Red clover was traditionally used for skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis. However, the isoflavone fraction is now more commonly used as a form of HRT in women to reduce the symptoms of the menopause, although randomised controlled studies show only a slight benefit at best. It is also used for mastalgia, premenstrual syndrome and cancer prevention. Pharmacokinetics In an in vitro study, Read more […]

Red clover: Practice Points – Patient Counselling. FAQ

• Red clover flower heads are traditionally considered a dermatological agent, mild antispasmodic and expectorant and specifically used for eczema and psoriasis. In practice, it is often combined with yellow dock for treatment of chronic skin disease. • In recent years, red clover isoflavones have been studied and shown to have an affinity for oestrogen alpha- and beta-receptors and may act as both agonists and antagonists, depending on the level of endogenous oestrogens. • Evidence that red clover-derived isoflavones reduce hot flush frequency in menopause is unconvincing. • Preliminary evidence suggests a possible preventative role in osteoporosis; however, further research is required. • Concentrated isoflavone extracts from red clover are used in cardiovascular disease as there is weak evidence that it may reduce arterial stiffness. • Evidence from animal studies and case series suggests a potential role in BPH. • Cancer (there is weak evidence that red clover isoflavone extracts may reduce risk of hormone-sensitive cancers and that they may be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer). Answers to Patients’ Frequently Asked Questions What will this herb do for me? Red Read more […]

Red clover: Significant Interactions. Pregnancy Use

Adverse Reactions The oestrogenic potency of the isoflavones has been well documented. Overgrazing cattle or sheep on red clover can be detrimental to their fertility. In ‘clover disease’, ewes are made permanently infertile by clover consumption. In animals with clover disease, the uterine response to oestrogen is reduced, as is the surge in LH. Clover disease has not been observed with normal therapeutic doses in humans. None of the trials has reported adverse effects. An isoflavone preparation from soya bean, and red clover extracts containing genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, did not modify the endometrial architecture in 25 postmenopausal women taking the preparation for 1 year. Significant Interactions Controlled studies are not available; therefore, interactions are based on evidence of activity and are largely theoretical and speculative. ANTICOAGULANT AGENTS Red clover contains coumarin, which could theoretically exert anticoagulant activity and therefore increase the clinical effects of warfarin. However, it is only the byproduct, dicoumarol (produced by microorganism in poorly dried sweet clover) that has established anticoagulant effects. Interaction with anticoagulant medication is Read more […]

Red clover: Clinical Use. Dosage

Considerable research has been carried out on the constituents of red clover. However, most of the investigations have been undertaken for agricultural rather than medicinal purposes. Very few investigations have concentrated specifically on the flower heads and the traditional uses. RELIEF OF MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS Although extracts standardised for soy isoflavone levels may help relieve symptoms, such as hot flushes and other symptoms frequently associated with menopause, the evidence from red clover isoflavones is less convincing. A 2004 systematic review that included data from five trials published between 1966 until March 2004 concluded that phyto-oestrogens from red clover have not been shown to reduce hot flushes. The trials were placebo-controlled, involved a total of 400 women and tested a standardised red clover isoflavone extract available commercially as Promensil (Novogen Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia), which contains 40 mg isoflavones. Two of the smallest trials (n = 30 each) reported a significant decrease in hot flush frequency; however, three, double-blind placebo-controlled trials found little effect in reducing the incidence or severity of hot flushes. The largest and highest quality study involved Read more […]

Red clover: Background. Actions

Common Name Red clover Other Names Cow clover, meadow clover, purple clover, trifoil Botanical Name / Family Trifolium pratense L. (family Fabaceae) Plant Parts Used Flower head or leaf Historical Note Red clover has been used for a long time as an animal fodder as well as a human medicine. Traditionally, it is considered an alternative remedy with good cleansing properties useful in the treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis, eczema and rashes. A strong infusion was used to ease whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs due to measles, bronchitis and laryngitis. It was recommended for ‘ulcers of every kind, and deep, ragged-edged, and otherwise badly-conditioned burns. It possesses a peculiar soothing property, proves an efficient detergent, and promotes a healthful granulation’. Combined with other herbs, red clover was recommended for syphilis, scrofula, chronic rheumatism, glandular and various skin affections. Interestingly, red clover was not traditionally used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Chemical Components FLOWER HEAD Flavonoids, including formononetin; flavonols, including isorhamnetin and quercetin glucosides; phenolic acids, including salicylic and p-coumaric acids; volatile Read more […]