GASTROPROTECTION DURING HEART SURGERY
In a trial of 24 children undergoing heart surgery for congenital heart defects, 12 children received 1.35 mg/kg ginsenoside compound or placebo intravenously before and throughout the course of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Ginseng administration resulted in attenuation of gastrointestinal injury and inflammation.
RESPIRA TORY DISEASE
Ginseng extract (G115) has been shown significantly (P < 0.05) to improve pulmonary function test, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximum inspiratory pressure and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in a study of 92 patients suffering moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 49, G115 100 mg twice daily for 3 months).
Helicobacter pylori can provoke gastric inflammation, ulceration and DNA damage, resulting in an increased risk of carcinogenesis. As preliminary evidence suggests that Panax ginseng inhibits the growth of Helicobacter pylori and can inhibit adhesion it may be useful as a gastroprotective agent against Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosal cell damage.
Long-term intake of Korean ginseng slows the depletion of CD4+ T cells and may delay disease progression in people with HIV type 1. Long-term intake (60 ± 1 5 months) has also been shown to delay the development of resistance mutation to zidovudine.
• Extract equivalent to 0.9-3 g crude ginseng root
• Standardised extract: 1.5-4.0% total ginsensosides calculated as ginsenoside Rg1.
• Liquid extract (1:2): 1-6 mL/day.
• Cognitive function: doses of 400-900 mg are recommended. Lower doses may be associated with ‘cognitive costs’ and slowing performance on attention tasks.
• Cardiovascular use: 1.5-2 g three times daily.
Many of the clinical studies published in the scientific literature have used a proprietary extract of ginseng standardised to 4% total ginsenosides (G115 or ginsana produced by Pharmaton, Switzerland).