Caffeine: Production by Plant (Coffea spp.)

2016 | Comments Off

Caffeine and Man During evolution Homo sapiens has selected from the plant kingdom's vast diversity a few species containing caffeine and related purine alkaloids [PA] and has manufactured them into pleasant "stimulants". This process occurred in different civilizations from East to West and resulted in six "self-prescribed" drugs which are coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner), tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), mate (Ilexparaguariensis St. Hil.), guarana (Paullinia cupana H.B.K.) and cola (Cola nitida Schott et Endl.). Since they are taken daily or at least very frequently, caffeine, the active principle, is a regular component of the human diet. For the major dietary caffeine sources Barone and Roberts () suggest caffeine content values as follows; 85, 60 and 3 mg of caffeine per 5-oz cup for ground roasted, instant, and decaffeinated coffee respectively; 40. and 30 mg per 5-oz cup for leaf or bag tea and instant tea respectively; 18 mg per 6-oz glass for colas; 4 mg per 5-oz cup for cocoa or hot chocolate; and 5 mg per 8-oz glass for chocolate milk. From product usage and consumption analyses, the same authors estimate that the mean daily intake is approximately Read more [...]

Cultivation and production of eucalypts in South America

2016 | Comments Off

FAO country estimates for the areas of plantation eucalypts in 1990 show that Brazil had the second largest area after India, 3.6 million ha (). The most recent estimate, also from FAO sources, puts the figure at 3.1 million ha (). Although this massive resource is designed to meet the raw material needs of Brazil’s forest-based industries such as timber, pulp and charcoal, it has, nevertheless, indirectly influenced the development of the eucalyptus oil industry in the country, at least in the early days. Apart from China, Brazil has been the only other significant producer and exporter of Eucalyptus citriodora oil and this aros from the widespread availability of ‘waste’ leaf from Eucalyptus citriodora planted primarily for charcoal production. Charcoal is used for fuelling the furnaces in the iron and steel industries and in the manufacture of cement and Eucalyptus citriodora has played an important role in the Brazilian economy (). In addition to Eucalyptus citriodora oil, oils from Eucalyptus globulus and E. staigeriana are produced in Brazil Production of eucalyptus oil elsewhere in South America is small compared to that in Brazil and although brief mention is made later in this chapter to Chile, Bolivia, Read more [...]

The preservation and production of Capsicum in Hungary

2016 | Comments Off

Capsicum was introduced to Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century and became an important crop in several countries, Hungary included. Like other Capsicum producing countries, there are two main types grown in Hungary: one for fresh consumption, the sweet Capsicum, and the paprika for use as a condiment. The paprika characteristics differ in several ways from the sweet Capsicum. Sweet Capsicum is mainly grown under controlled environmental conditions and is also field-grown. The paprika is only field-grown. Spice is produced from paprika after drying and milling. The production area of sweet Capsicum was about 8,000—10,000 ha during the last three to four decades. This area has decreased dramatically in the last two years; currently, it is about 4,000—4,500 ha. The production area of paprika has remained steady at around 3,000—7,000 ha for a long time. Since sweet Capsicum is grown all over the country — except in the cold, rainy areas near the western border — paprika is only grown in the two traditional regions (Szeged and Kalocsa) of the southern counties. Hungary used to be one of the most outstanding exporters of the condiment paprika. Hungary's activity in the world market has been reduced Read more [...]

Capsicum in Hungary: Production regions, cultivars, growing and processing technology

2016 | Comments Off

Climate of Hungary Hungary is located on the north latitude 46°—48°. It means Hungary is on the northern border of the paprika growing area. The vegetation period is relatively short. Late spring frost may occur between 15—20 April. In some cases the first autumn frost may come at the end of September, but definitely in the middle of October. Almost the whole area of the country is suitable for paprika growing given its temperature, precipitation and sunshine-hours. There are no striking differences in climate from region to region, although the sunshine-hours are the highest on the southeast part, and the precipitation is the least (about 2,000 hours and 500 mm per annum, respectively), while the sunshine-hours are less and the precipitation is more (about 1,800 hours and 700—800 mm per annum) on the western part of the country. Production regions Sweet Capsicum Sweet Capsicum can be grown in any Hungarian region except along the western border of the country where the precipitation is higher and the temperature is lower than the average. Only 8—10% of the country's soil and climate conditions are unsuitable for growing sweet Capsicum. Nevertheless, as traditional growing regions evolved, immigrant Read more [...]

Capsicum in Hungary: Processing Technology

2016 | Comments Off

Sweet Capsicum PRODUCTION METHODS Sweet Capsicum is produced under cover in glass or plastic greenhouses (forcing system) and in the field, depending on the environmental conditions (similar to other European countries). Forcing system Growing structures can be: glass covered or plastic covered. According to production periods we recommend the following forcing seasons: Early forcing: Sowing in September—October, transplanting in November-January to heated glass house. Mid-early forcing: Sowing in November—December, transplanting in January—March to heated plastic house. Cold forcing: Sowing at the end of February and transplanting at the end of April to unheated plastic houses. Autumn forcing: Sowing in July and transplanting in September to heated plastic houses. Growing in the open field: At first the seedlings are grown in hotbeds or in heated greenhouse usually until the middle of March. Transplanting could commence after the spring frosts approximately at the end of May. SOWING AND GROWING SEEDLINGS Using any production technology seedlings are grown under controlled conditions in seedling media (trays, pots, etc.). TRANSPLANTING Transplanting varies according to the production technology Read more [...]

Adulterants, contaminants and pollutants in Capsicum products

2016 | Comments Off

Chilli used as a spice has agricultural and marketing specifications and also food standards in national regulations since chilli is a food, a food supplement or a food adjunct. Concerns on quality and safety emerge on account of occasional aberrations of adulteration, contamination and pollution. Relatively stable pollutants of air, water and soil get to this plant product engendered by all these three. Needless to say, adulteration is intentional and contamination incidental. The latter exceeding the limits of good agricultural and manufacturing practices changes to adulteration even if not intentional. This chapter deals with adulteration in the whole, in the form of powder and paste of chilli. The details include microscopic detection of adulterants, estimation of carotenoids and non-volatile ether extract of extracted chilli and that influenced by addition of edible oils. Contaminants specially in respect to irradiation and added colors are included. Pollutants include trace metals, pesticides, mycotoxins and microbes. Insect-infested and insect-damaged chilli may not be rare in tropical regions. Chilli is not an esoteric spice and is not very costly either. Even then, it attracts its own moderate share of adulteration, Read more [...]

Artemisia Ludoviciana ssp. Mexicana (Estafiate)

2016 | Comments Off

Estafiate or iztauyatl (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in Mexican phytotherapy and is nowadays used especially for gastrointestinal pain, as a vermifuge and as a bitter stimulant. The historical and modern uses of this species are reviewed. The first report of its medicinal use dates back to the 16th century, but at that time it was used for completely different illnesses. Only very limited pharmacological studies to evaluate these claims are available; anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antihelmintic effects have been reported. The aerial parts contain a large number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids as well as essential oil which has not yet been studied in detail. Estafiate or iztauyatl (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana) is one of the most popular remedies in Mexican phytotherapy. It is frequently sold in markets in the cities and also grown in many house gardens (). It is thus a locally important economic product and a phytotherapeutic resource which requires documentation of its regional or national importance as well as evaluation and monitoring for efficacy and safety. Plants generally are an important medicinal resource to many people in Mexico and Read more [...]

Cultivation of Artemisia

2016 | Comments Off

The genus Artemisia includes a large number of species and some have been cultivated as commercial crops with a wide diversity of uses. Some better known examples include antimalarial (Artemisia annua - annual or sweet wormwood), culinary spices (Artemisia dracunculus - French tarragon), liquor flavouring (Artemisia absinthium - absinthe), garden ornamental (A. abrotanum - southernwood) and insect repellent (Artemisia vulgaris - mugwort). However this review will concentrate on the cultivation of Artemisia annua because of its contemporary importance as a source of new and effective antimalarial drugs. During World War II and in the years immediately following, the world wide incidence of malaria was dramatically reduced. On the one hand the Anopheles mosquito vector was successfully controlled by the advent of the insecticide DDT and on the other the organisms causing human malaria - the single celled Plasmodium species: falciparum, vivax, malariae and ovale - were effectively controlled by the use of synthetic derivatives of quinine. The specific statistics for India illustrate this dramatic reduction. In 1961 the incidence of malaria had fallen to about 100,000 reported cases, however by 1977 the number of reported Read more [...]

Artemisia: Plant Cultural Techniques

2016 | Comments Off

Plant Establishment Natural stands In China Artemisia annua traditionally has been harvested from wild natural self seeded stands. Although no specific crop production statistics are available, because of a confidentiality policy of Chinese authorities, it is believed that the bulk of Chinese production still comes from wild stands. These stands are the source of much of the artemisinin derived drugs used in China and probably the bulk of those drugs exported elsewhere (WHO, 1994) although some selected lines of Artemisia annua are cultivated as a row crop in Szechwan Province (). Ideally the harvesting of raw material for medicinal drug production from wild stands is not a good policy (). The plant material in wild stands is typically very variable in its content of the required medicinal constituents and this has an impact on the economics of drug extraction. Added to this the continual encroachment and elimination of wild stands will ultimately limit the source of genetic variability which is vital to the development of improved seed lines (). Another negative factor against utilisation of wild stands is that transport distances often become uneconomic with a crop such as Artemisia annua with a relatively low artemisinin Read more [...]

Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

2016 | Comments Off

Large cardamom or Nepal cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) is a spice cultivated in the sub-Himalayan region of north-eastern India, especially in Sikkim since time immemorial. In the past the aboriginal inhabitants of Sikkim, Lepchas, collected capsules of large cardamom from natural forest, but later on these forests passed into village ownership and the villagers started cultivation of large cardamom. The presence of wild species, locally known as churumpa, and the variability within the cultivated species supports the view of its origin in Sikkim (). Later the cultivation has spread to northern Uttar Pradesh, north-eastern States of India (Arunachal Pradesh, Mizorum and Manipur), Nepal and Bhutan. Sikkim is the largest producer of large cardamom; the annual production in India is about 3500–4000 mt of cured Large cardamom. The average productivity is 100–150 kg/ha, but in well-maintained plantations the productivity reaches 1000–2000 kg/ha. Nepal and Bhutan are the other two countries cultivating this crop with an annual production of about 1500 mt. This spice is used in Ayurvedic preparation in India as mentioned by Susruta in the sixth century BC and also known among Greeks and Romans as Amomum (Ridley, 1912). Read more [...]