Conventional Treatment Approaches

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines in 1996 recommending a risk-based (screening) approach, to determine when to recommend intravenous (IV) antibiotic prophylaxis during labor. It was determined that women with the following risk factors should be offered (IV) antibiotics during labor and delivery, not before labor: • fever during labor • rupture of membranes 18 hours or more before delivery • labor or rupture of membranes before 37 weeks As of 2002, the CDC revised the 1996 guidelines, recommending routine screening for all pregnant women between 35 and 37 weeks gestation, and universal treatment for women who test positive for group B Streptococcus during pregnancy (Box CDC 2002 group B Streptococcus Treatment Guidelines). CDC 2002 group B Streptococcus Treatment Guidelines • All pregnant women should be screened at 35 to 37 week gestation for vaginal and rectal group B Streptococcus colonization. At the time of labor or rupture of membranes, intrapartum chemoprophylaxis should be given to all pregnant women identified as group B Streptococcus carriers. Colonization Read more […]

Goldenseal: Background. Actions

Historical Note Goldenseal is indigenous to North America and was traditionally used by the Cherokees and then by early American pioneers. Preparations of the root and rhizome were used for gastritis, diarrhea, vaginitis, dropsy, menstrual abnormalities, eye and mouth inflammation, and general ulceration. In addition to this, the plant was used for dyeing fabric and weapons. Practitioners of the eclectic school created a high demand for goldenseal around 1847. This ensured the herb’s ongoing popularity in Western herbal medicine, but unfortunately led to it being named a threatened species in 1997. Today, most high-quality goldenseal is from cultivated sources. Common Name Goldenseal Other Names Eye root, jaundice root, orange root, yellow root Botanical Name / Family Hydrastis canadensis (family Ranunculaceae) Plant Parts Used Root and rhizome Chemical Components Isoquinoline alkaloids, including hydrastine (1.5-5%), berberine (0.5-6%) and canadine (tetrahydroberberine, 0.5-1.0%). Other related alkaloids include canadaline, hydrastidine, corypalmineand isohydrastidine. Clinical note — Isoquinoline alkaloids Isoquinoline alkaloids are derived from phenylalanine or tyrosine and are most frequently found Read more […]

ANTIBIOTICS

ANTIBIOTICS are, strictly speaking, natural products secreted by microorganisms into their environment, where they inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms of different species. In common usage, the term is generally applied to a wide range of chemicals, whether directly isolated from mould ferments, their semisynthetic derivatives, or synthetic chemicals showing some structural similarities. Also, in everyday language the term is used to denote drugs with a selectively toxic action on bacteria or similar non-nucleated single-celled microorganisms (including chlamydia, rickettsia and mycoplasma), though such drugs have no effect on viruses. In this loose parlance even the sulphonamides may, incorrectly, be referred to as antibiotics because they are antimicrobial. More confusing is the fact that a number of antibiotics are used as cytotoxic agents in cancer chemotherapy (e.g. bleomycin): see ANTICANCER AGENTS. Further, partly because of the recent development of high-throughput screens for lead chemicals, a number of new drug chemical classes have arisen from antibiotic leads (e.g. the CCK antagonist asperlicin and derivatives, from Aspergillus spp.). The antimicrobial antibiotics have a selectively toxic Read more […]