Citrus in Traditional Medicine

Citrus in traditional Asiatic medicine In a comparative study of the use of herbal drugs in the traditional medicines of India and Europe, Pun () found a marked similarity between the drugs used in the two continents. He attributed this not only to the similarity of the vegetation in the two areas, but also to the influence that traditional Indian medicine, in particular the Atherveda, one of the most ancient repositories of human knowledge, had on Egypt, Greece and Rome. He listed the principal uses of a small number of these drugs, including bitter orange peel, which in India is used as an aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent and carminative agent, and lemon, which is used as a flavouring and for its carminative and stomachic effects. In the Valmiki-Ramayana, written after the Vedas and one of the most sacred of all religious books which enumerates the virtues of the medicinal plants that Lord Rama (Vishnu) met during his fourteen-year journey around different parts of India, Karnick and Hocking () identified and listed fifty of these drugs with their use as described in the Ayurvedica (or native Indian) system of medicine. The immature fruit of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle was used as an fortifier, Read more […]

Ruta graveolens

Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and its tissue cultures are investigated from a wide variety of aspects, such as botanical studies, medicinal activities, chemical constituents and biosynthesis of some compounds. The in vitro culture of Ruta, quick-growing and with strong biogenetic potentialities, is an optimal implement for biochemical and physiological studies, and many research teams are using it in various fields which are reported in this chapter. Distribution and Importance of the Plant The genus Ruta belongs to the family Rutaceae, subfamily Rutoideae and tribe Ruteae. The subtribe Rutinae contains the following genera: Ruta L., Haplophyllum A. Juss., Thamnosma Torr. and Fr. and Boenninghausenia Reichb. Engler (1931) included Ruta and Haplophyllum in one genus. However, Waterman (1975) found that from a chemical standpoint Haplophyllum and Thamnosma are similar, but quite different from Ruta. According to the Flora Europaea, five species are assigned to the genus Ruta (). Ruta graveolens L. (common names: Engl.: common rue, herb of grace; French: rue fetide; German: Gartenraute; Spanish: ruda, arruda) is a well-known evergreen, half shrubby plant of 0.5 to 1 m in height, with leaves two- to three-pinnate and Read more […]


ANTHELMINTICS (anthelminthic drugs) are used to treat infections by parasitic organisms of the helminths family (helminthos, a worm). A large proportion of humankind harbours helminths of one species or another. In some cases there may only be minor discomfort, but in many cases there is serious morbidity. The form of treatment depends in part on the form of the infection. Intestinal forms include infection by tapeworms, including Taenia species. Tissue forms include Trematodes or flukes (genus Schistosoma, class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes) cause schistosomiasis — or bilharziasis. The drugs that treat fluke infection by Schistosoma mansoni, S.japonicum and S. haematobium are called ANTISCHISTOSOMES. In all cases there is a complicated life cycle in which hosts other than humans are utilized. Treatment varies with the stage of the life cycle. Anthelmintic drugs, in order to act, must be capable of penetrating the cuticle of the worm or pass into its alimentary tract. They work in a variety of ways to damage the worm, causing paralysis, narcosis, or damaging its cuticle and so allowing partial digestion. Some drugs interfere with the metabolism, which may be very species-dependent. Benzimidazoles include albendazole, Read more […]