Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz Bip. (Feverfew)

Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz (Family Compositae) is a member of a genus of 14 species native to Europe and Asia; it has several synonyms: e.g., Matricaria parthenium L.; Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh., Pyrethrum parthenium (L.) Sm.; Leucanthemum parthenium (L.) Gren. and Godron; and is very closely related to Parthenium parthenifblium (Willd., Schultz Bip. ().Tanacetum parthenium is a perennial herb strongly aromatic in all its parts with a vertical rootstock and erect stem (up to 70 cm) with yellow-green leaves and a flowering period from June to late August. The flowerheads (1 to 2.4 cm in diam.) are carried in dense corymbs with spreading, white, rather short ray florets and yellow disk florets. (). The species was probably originally confined to S.E. Europe, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus but is now naturalized throughout Europe and the Americas. It is abundant on waysides and waste ground and in mountain shrub. The plant is commercially grown on a small but increasing scale and is much privately cultivated as a pot herb. Extracts of the leaves or the fresh foliage have been extensively used in folk medicine. This has led to the adoption of a rich variety of local names: midsummer daisy, nosebleed, devil Read more […]

Artemisia Ludoviciana ssp. Mexicana (Estafiate)

Estafiate or iztauyatl (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in Mexican phytotherapy and is nowadays used especially for gastrointestinal pain, as a vermifuge and as a bitter stimulant. The historical and modern uses of this species are reviewed. The first report of its medicinal use dates back to the 16th century, but at that time it was used for completely different illnesses. Only very limited pharmacological studies to evaluate these claims are available; anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antihelmintic effects have been reported. The aerial parts contain a large number of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids as well as essential oil which has not yet been studied in detail. Estafiate or iztauyatl (Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. mexicana) is one of the most popular remedies in Mexican phytotherapy. It is frequently sold in markets in the cities and also grown in many house gardens (). It is thus a locally important economic product and a phytotherapeutic resource which requires documentation of its regional or national importance as well as evaluation and monitoring for efficacy and safety. Plants generally are an important medicinal resource to many people in Mexico and Read more […]

Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Pain Relief

Cannabis is a term that describes products derived from the Indian hemp, Cannabis sativa. It has its origins probably in India but now grows all over the world. The chemical compounds responsible for intoxication and medicinal effects are found mainly in a sticky golden resin exuded from the flowers of the female plants and surrounding leaves. Cannabis sativa contains a wide range of different chemicals including a family of compounds called “cannabinoids”. Of the cannabinoids delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is probably the main compound responsible for the psychotropic activities. Cannabis has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and is mentioned in a Chinese herbal dating back to 2700 BC. There are records of ’its medicinal use in Egyptian papyri of the sixteenth century BC. Much later, the plant is mentioned in Assyrian texts and in Greek and Roman sources as a medicinal agent. Early Experiences in the 19th Century Cannabis Tincture was used in the nineteenth century as an analgesic, as well as numerous other conditions and was considered milder and less dangerous than opium. W.B.O’Shaughnessy was the first of the western physicians to take an interest in cannabis as a medicine on account Read more […]

Nabilone — Clinical Experience at the James Paget Hospital

The dose per capsule is 1 mg but we found that this could be excessive for some patients. Therefore, some were started at 0.25 mg by opening the capsule and dividing the resultant powder into four. The initial time for nabilone use has been at night to reduce the potential discomfort of any side effects. Once the patient’s confidence has been developed, the dosage has been increased where appropriate. Those patients who have benefited from nabilone have been through a period of discontinuation to help evaluate the benefits of this drug. The age range of the 43 patients who have used nabilone is from 25–82 years with 75% between the ages of 30 and 50. More women than men were treated, mainly reflecting a large sex difference in the group with multiple sclerosis. The diagnoses of the patients were categorised into 6 groups as the most convenient method of presenting the information from such an heterogeneous group. No attempt has been made to do anything more than describe the effects of using nabilone on each individual patient and thereby evaluate whether it might be of value in pain control. Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis is characterised by widespread and varied damage to the central nervous Read more […]

Neurotransmitters Involved with Cannabinoid Action

Cannabis is a complex mixture of cannabinoid molecules (over 61 have been identified) and other chemicals (of which 400 have been identified); with THC as the main active cannabinoid responsible for the psychotropic effects. All these chemicals may have a wide variety of mechanisms of action and that of their metabolites may well be different again. So far, studies have concentrated on THC and a number of synthetic analogues, revealing a number of possible mechanisms of action. The central nervous system (CNS) transmitters that modulate the perceptions of pain include noradrenaline, serotonin (5HT), acetylcholine, GABA, the opioid peptides and the prostaglandins. Reports suggest that the analgesic effects seen with the cannabinoids involve prostaglandins, noradrenaline, 5HT and the opioid peptides, but not GABA or acetylcholine. The involvement of the prostaglandins is complex. The cannabinoids are stimulators of phospholipase A2, promoting the production of prostaglandins, but also inhibitors of cycloxygenase therefore also inhibiting production. The scene is further complicated by the fact that prostaglandins oppose pain centrally but cause pain at peripheral sites (). This may explain why in some tests involving Read more […]

The Possible Mechanisms of Perilla in the Treatment of Allergy

Although the precise mechanisms of Perilla treatment for allergy are not yet well elucidated, recent researches on the various phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties have also revealed some mechanisms of Perilla action in allergy. Kosuna () recently published a review on anti-inflammatory active compounds in Perilla. Several active components contained in Perilla have been found to be linked with antiallergy and anti-inflammatory actions. These include elemicine, CX-pinene, caryophyllene, myristicin, β-sitosterol, apigenin, phenylpropanoids and also some flavonoids which act as anti-inflammatory agents (). From current knowledge, the mechanisms of allergy treatment by Perilla may involve the following aspects which are Linked to the regulation of the condition by the immune system. Perilla Leaf Extract TNF inhibition Relevant to this section is the Perilla leaf extract which contains active components of molecular weight less than 10000. As mentioned above, Yamazaki reported that Perilla extract was shown to be active in inhibiting TNF production (). Kosuna proposed that more than ten active components contained in the Perilla leaf extract were active in inhibiting TNF production which plays an important Read more […]

The use of eucalyptus oils in consumer products

Insect repellents As noted in the introduction, Eucalyptus citriodora oil has been used as a ‘natural’ insect repellent. Depending on the product formulation it is used in, Lemon Eucalyptus (known as Quwenling in China) is up to four or five times more effective and longer-lasting than citronella oil (from Cymbopogon nardus), one of the best known natural insect repellents. p-Menthane-3,8-diol is the main active component of Quwenling and this can be isolated and used as a highly effective insect repellent. Eucalyptus citriodora oil contains up to 80–90 per cent citronellal, along with geraniol, both of which are known to have insect repellent activity but tend to dilute the much higher activity of the p-menthane-3,8-diol. The Mosi-guard Natural insect repellent spray produced by MASTA in the UK contains ‘Extract of Lemon Eucalyptus’ and claims on the label: Approved and recommended by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Field trials have shown effective protection for 6 h after a single application in mosquito infected areas. Also protects against many other biting insects. Mosi-guard Natural is made from a natural and renewable resource. It is kind to your skin and has no adverse effects Read more […]

Neem: Haircare And Bodycare Products

The use of neem in skin diseases lead to its application on preventive aspects also. Taking a bath in a decoction of neem leaves was a ritual in some societies. The anti-inflammatory properties of neem preparations made their use more popular. As given in post on Traditional uses, the neem twig is well reputed for oral hygiene, neem oil, extract or fibers have been incorporated in some of the recent toothpastes and a floss has also been prepared. Neem soap is quite popular in India and its use is also spreading in the western world. Neem extract is an important ingredient of some herbal shampoo, and neem oil is used in hair oils, body lotions, creams and mosquito repellent preparations. Neem oil is said to prevent baldness and greying of hair, and has anti-lice and anti-dandruff effects. Patents for these products have also been taken out (). Neem has been incorporated in face packs. A typical formulation may have a very fine powder of leaves, bark and seed in clay. Milan Mehtra () has given some formulations incorporating neem for face packs for oily skin, hair oil and cream for cracks on the back of the heel. In face packs, neem has been mixed with Carica papaya which contains papain and with liquorice. The Read more […]

Pharmacology of Poppy Alkaloids: Minor Opium Alkaloids

The pharmacology and biology of minor opium alkaloids have been surveyed previously in two comprehensive reviews (). Thebaine The pharmacology of thebaine was summarized by Reynolds and Randall in 1957 and studied comprehensively by a WHO Advisory Group in 1980. The pharmacological actions of thebaine in various isolated organs have been studied. Thebaine can induce a temporary decrease in blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs and this depressor effect showed a marked tachyphylaxis. In isolated guinea pig atrium, thebaine decreased the heart rate and contractions depending on the concentration. In isolated rabbit ileum it decreased the peristaltic movement and contractions (). The predominant effect of thebaine is stimulation of the central nervous system. In the mouse, rabbit, cat and dog increases in motor activity and reflex excitability were observed at doses around 2-10mg/kg s.c. or i.m. The Straub-tail response was noted only occasionally. The effects of thebaine on body temperature and respiration have also been studied. Convulsions were observed in almost all species of animals including the frog, pigeon, mouse, guinea pig, cat and dog. Transient tremors, restlessness and convulsions were observed in the Read more […]

Polygonum hydropiper L. (Water Pepper)

Distribution and Importance Polygonum hydropiper L. (family Polygonoceae) is a member of a genus of some 175 species. It is a semi-erect (25-75 cm) annual herb with a branched stem and lance-shaped leaves, carrying its greenish-pink flowers in slender racemes (). The species is widespread in most parts of Europe, temperate Asia, and North America, and it also occurs at scattered sites in North Africa. Across its main range it is abundant in the verges of ponds and ditches and on waterlogged grasslands and water meadows. Polygonum hydropiper is not grown commercially but has found an exceptionally impressive range of uses in folk medicine and also as a culinary herb, and this has led to the adoption of a rich variety of apt local names, e.g. fireweed, arsemart and smartweed are examples of some 20 English regional names in addition to the accepted vernacular name of “water pepper“. The flower heads have little odour but all the aerial parts have a bitter acrid taste and contain vesicant compounds that blister the skin upon repeated handling (). Medicinal use of Polygonum hydropiper goes back to Dioscorides (ca. 60 a.d.) and tinctures of foliage are used as diuretics, diaphoretics, and to arrest gynecological bleeding Read more […]