The Possible Mechanisms of Perilla in the Treatment of Allergy

Although the precise mechanisms of Perilla treatment for allergy are not yet well elucidated, recent researches on the various phytochemicals and their pharmacological properties have also revealed some mechanisms of Perilla action in allergy. Kosuna () recently published a review on anti-inflammatory active compounds in Perilla. Several active components contained in Perilla have been found to be linked with antiallergy and anti-inflammatory actions. These include elemicine, CX-pinene, caryophyllene, myristicin, β-sitosterol, apigenin, phenylpropanoids and also some flavonoids which act as anti-inflammatory agents (). From current knowledge, the mechanisms of allergy treatment by Perilla may involve the following aspects which are Linked to the regulation of the condition by the immune system. Perilla Leaf Extract TNF inhibition Relevant to this section is the Perilla leaf extract which contains active components of molecular weight less than 10000. As mentioned above, Yamazaki reported that Perilla extract was shown to be active in inhibiting TNF production (). Kosuna proposed that more than ten active components contained in the Perilla leaf extract were active in inhibiting TNF production which plays an important Read more […]

A Clinical Investigation of Perilla Extract Cream for Atopic Dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is one kind of allergic disease. Allergies are very closely associated with an immune response. When the human body is invaded by a foreign substance (antigen), antibodies or sensitised lymphocytes will be produced as a result of the response of the immune system. Later when the same antigen invades the body again, it will soon be eliminated or become harmless to the body. This is an immune response which is an indispensable function to prevent infection and tumours. However, sometimes the immune reaction between antigen and antibodies or sensitised lymphocytes can cause harm to the body itself. This kind of immune reaction in which antigen comes from outside the body causes allergic disease, whereas antigen which comes from the body itself causes auto-immune disease. According to the statistical investigation in 1992 by the Ministry of Welfare of Japan, 34% of the Japanese population suffer from some kind of allergy, and most of them are children between the age of 0 to 4. There is the tendency for allergic symptoms to appeal- as atopic dermatitis in childhood and to become asthma or rhinitis as they mature. The word atopy is derived from Greek () and means odd and thus atopic dermatitis is Read more […]

Gloeophyllum odovatum (Brown Rot Fungus)

The Fungus and Its Secondary Metabolites The fruiting bodies of the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum odovatum (Wulf. ex Fr.) Imaz. syn. Trametes, odorata (Wulf. ex Fr.) Osmoporus odoratus (Wulf. ex Fr.) (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycetes) are found in coniferous forests, chiefly in northern and rocky mountains in central Europe, in Asia, and occasionally in North America. In Fennoscandia, the fungus grows mostly on old stumps of the Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.], very rarely on pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The perennial brown fruit bodies are knotty, wedge- or plate-like medium-sized or large. The young parts are ochraceous to light brown in color, later becoming dark brown to almost black or blackish gray. G. odovatum is not very common. The other known Gloeophyllum species are G. protactum, G. sepiarium, G. abietinum and G. trabeum. Only the fresh fruit bodies of G. odoratum produce a strong scent of aniseed, when it grows on spruce. The sporophore of the fungus is primarily interesting because of its volatiles; however, they also contain steroids. The principal volatiles from the fruiting body grown on spruce have been identified as aromatics, i.e., methyl p-methoxyphenylacetate (33.5%) accompanied by ethyl Read more […]


GLUCOCORTICOIDS are members of the corticosteroid family, with actions similar to the steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. There are two main types of corticosteroids: glucocorticoids and MINERALOCORTICOIDS. Glucocorticoids that are important physiologically include hydrocortisone (cortisol), corticosterone and cortisone. These are essential for utilization of carbohydrate, fat and protein in the body, and in the normal response to stress. Naturally occurring and synthetic glucocorticoids have a powerful antiinflammatory effect. In contrast, the mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone) are necessary for the regulation of the salt and water balance of the body. Corticosteroids can be used in hormone replacement therapy. For instance, the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone and the mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone can be given to patients for replacement therapy where there is a deficiency, or in Addison’s disease, or following adrenalectomy or hypopituitarism. The glucocorticoids are potent antiinflammatory and antiallergic agents, frequently used to treat inflammatory and/or allergic reactions of the skin, airways and elsewhere. Absorption of a high dose of corticosteroid over a period of time may also cause undesirable Read more […]


DERMATOLOGICAL AGENTS are used for a wide variety of purposes and some of the more important pharmacological types and terms will be discussed. ANTIINFLAMMATORY AGENTS are frequently used to treat inflammatory and/or allergic reactions of the skin. The commonest agents used are CORTICOSTEROIDS (of the GLUCOCORTICOID type), which have potent antiinflammatory and ANTIALLERGIC properties. There is a range of steroids available as creams or ointments, which vary in concentration and the strength of the antiinflammatory action of the particular corticosteroid: the choice depends on the severity of the skin condition. Some preparations are available without prescription for minor skin inflammation, whereas at the other extreme some preparations are reserved for severe outbursts of eczema or psoriasis. There are many corticosteroids used clinically for dermatological conditions. Inflammatory skin conditions are sometimes complicated by a coexisting infection, and there are many compound preparations available containing ANTIBACTERIAL or ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS together with an antiinflammatory corticosteroid. ANTIPERSPIRANTS are substances that help to prevent sweating. Medically, they are needed only in cases of severe Read more […]

Heartsease: Modern Applications

Grieve offers many more names for this plant, among them: love lies bleeding, love idol, Jack-jump-up-and-kiss-me, Kit run in the fields, stepmother, pink-eyed John, bouncing Bet. Discussing the names, she tells how the plant was prized for its potency as a love charm ‘in ancient days’, hence perhaps its name heartsease. Along with the uses familiar from the Renaissance authors, Grieve records the flowers were formerly considered cordial and good in diseases of the heart, attributing to this use a further possible origin of the name heartsease. Grieve offers no source for use of the plant as cordial. There is no obvious mention of this in our authors up to this point. Perhaps it stems more from a folk tradition, or perhaps even from a misinterpretation somewhere of the word angina. Leyel (1949) accords the herb cordial properties. She cites the past uses as in our authors, adds ‘a good herb in disorders of the blood’, and mentions its use in ‘moist cutaneous eruptions in children’, particularly crusta lactea and tinea capitis. Then she continues ‘it has derived the name heartsease partly from its early use as a heart tonic and it can be taken quite safely to relieve palpitation of the heart and to soothe a tired and Read more […]

Cervical Dysplasia: Discussion Of Botanicals

Blood Root The blood-red color of the sap from the roots of blood root led to its traditional use as a blood purifier. It was used as an emmenagogue, in the treatment of respiratory conditions, as a strong emetic, and for the treatment of fungal infections and ulcers. By the eighteenth century, blood root was used topically to treat indolent chancres and tumors as an ingredient in the popular “black salve,” an escharotic treatment that was used topically for the treatment of tumors. Extracts of sanguinarine, an alkaloid from the herb, have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antiproliferative, and apoptotic activities, and are under active research for the treatment of cancer. Sanguinarine, an alkaloid compound fund in blood root, is a potent inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation.’ Sanguinarine is an ingredient in dental hygiene products, for example, toothpaste, used for its antiplaque activity and in the treatment of gingivitis. There is controversy over the safety of its use in dental products, with contradictory research over whether it may cause malignant cell change and lead to the development of leukoplakia. Most studies have concluded that the extract is safe for dental Read more […]

Herbs For Diseases Of The Respiratory System

Herbs provide a number of actions that benefit both upper and lower respiratory diseases, including bronchitis (acute, allergic, and chronic), feline bronchial asthma, and sinusitis / rhinitis. Interestingly, some of the respiratory herbs are in the most commonly used, mass produced cough medicines available through pharmacies. These include cherry bark, Irish moss, and Licorice. Several groups of herbal actions are useful in the treatment of chronic respiratory disorders, and many traditional respiratory herbs fall into more than 1 group. In terms of respiratory therapy, the major actions are as follows. Antitussives Antitussives reduce coughing either through demulcent action, by removing the irritation (expectorant) action, or by depressing the cough reflex. This group therefore includes expectorants, demulcents, and anticatarrhals. The best known antitussive herbs are Irish moss (Cbondrus crispus), Wild cherry (Prunus serotina), and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Licorice root contains a potent antitussive compound, liquilitin apioside, the antitussive effects of which may depend on both peripheral and central mechanisms. A 50% methanol extract of licorice (100 mg / kg PO) reduced by more than 60% the number Read more […]

Diseases of the Digestive System

Herbs For Gastrointestinal Disorders Formulas For Gastrointestinal Conditions The formulas below are indicated for gingivitis, stomatitis, and periodontal disease; food allergy gastritis and enteritis; gastritis and vomiting; immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease; internal parasites (coccidia, giardia, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, and tapeworms); chronic active hepatitis and cholangiohepatitis; and acute and chronic pancreatitis. Strategy Implement appropriate lifestyle changes and appropriate diet. Monitor patients regularly, particularly if herbs are used as the sole treatment for early cases or if the animals are on conventional medication. Doses can be adjusted upwards if no changes of 20% per week have been observed. Doses of conventional medicines may need to be reviewed 1 to 2 weeks after commencing treatment with herbs. These formulas can be made as per the recipe or adapted from other recipes according to patient needs. They are formulated to allow substitution. Gingivitis and periodontal disease and stomatitis Implement dental prophylaxis and teeth cleaning. Use vulnery (wound healing), antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial herbs, and consider immune-supporting herbs. Improve peripheral circulation Read more […]

Diseases of the Skin: Alteratives Or Depuratives

Alteratives or depuratives, otherwise known as blood cleansers, are used to effect a gradual change in chronic disease states, including skin diseases, and are the foundation of any skin formula. There is a dearth of scientific research to support the use of alteratives; however, traditional use and indications are based on empirical observations in people and may have application in animals. Cleavers (Galium aparine) are used for dry skin conditions, eczema, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. The iridoid glycoside constituents are mildly laxative. Burdock root (Articum lappa) is one of the best known alteratives for eczema and chronic inflammatory states. One of its constituents, inulin, works as a gentle laxative. It is traditionally recommended for dry, red, scaly skin with hair loss. Oregon grape (Mabonia aquifolium) is used for rough, dry, scaly skin and dandruff. Red clover flowers (Trifolium pratense) and Yellow dock root (Rutnex crispus) are used for chronic skin disease. Cholaretic herbs are also considered to have depurative activity. These include Dandelion (Taraxacum offtcinale), Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis), Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), and Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Similarly diuretic herbs that Read more […]