Eustoma grandiflorum Shinn (Texas Bluebell)

Eustoma belongs to the family Gentianaceae. The taxonomy of this genus has been studied by Shinners (), who distinguished the species Eustoma grandiflorum Shinn. and Eustoma exaltatum (L.) Salisb. Taking into account morphological features of the leaves and growth, the author proposed distinguishing another species – Eustoma barkleyi Standley. Table List of synonyms used in the terminology of the genus Eustoma will help obtain a clear picture of the synonyms used in the nomenclature of the genus Eustoma. Table List of synonyms used in the terminology of the genus Eustoma. () Reference Eustoma grandiflorum Shinn. 1957 Eustoma exaltatum Salisb. 1838 Index Kewensis et Supplementa 1-16 (1895-1981) Eustoma russellianum Don. 1839 Eustoma silenifolium Salisb. 1806 Eustoma russellianum Griseb. 1845 Eustoma chironioides Griseb. 1845 Eustoma gracile Engelm. 1876 Eustoma andrewsii Nels. 1904 Eustoma lacteum Lindl. 1854 Shinners (1957) Synopsis of the genus Eustoma Bilamista grandiflora Raf. 1838 Gentiana exaltata L. 1762 Lisianthus russellianus Hook. 1839 Lisianthus glaucifolius Jacq. 1781 Urananthus russellianus Benth. 1840 Lisianthus exaltatus Lam. 1791 Eustoma Read more […]

Allium cepa L. (Onion)

The Allium species have been a source of food flavors and medicinal compounds in many areas of the world for several thousand years. The attraction of the alliums as a flavor source is primarily the pungent volatile constituents which are released when the fresh tissue is cut or chewed, and also the presence of milder odors in the cooked vegetables. The major alliums used as food in Western Europe include the onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (A. sativum L.), chives (A. schoenoprasum L.) and leek (A. porrum L.), but Allium fistulasum L. and Allium tuberosum are grown on a large scale and eaten raw or cooked in China, Japan, and South East Asia. All the alliums referred to may be eaten raw, or as a cooked vegetable, or used as a flavor additive to fresh or cooked foods (). On a commercial scale, the flavor may be added as a powder, an oil, or as dried shredded bulb tissue. The importance of Allium is indicated by the fact that flavor derived from this source (usually garlic or onions) is the major flavor additive to convenience foods. The therapeutic value of fresh and extracted Allium has always been recognized, as can be judged by the list of ailments that are reported to be cured by garlic and onion. These are hemorrhoids, Read more […]

Eupatorium cannabinum L. (Hemp Agrimony)

The genus Eupatorium L. (Asteraceae, tribe Eupatorieae) is comprised of some 38 perennial species that occur mainly in eastern North America and eastern South America (). From this center of distribution, however, species of Eupatorium have reached parts of Europe and Asia as well. Eupatorium cannabinum L. (commonly known as hemp agrimony) is frequently found in moist woods and meadows in northern and central Europe where it often grows along streams (). It is a perennial which reaches a height of ca. 0.5-1.5 m. The flowering heads are pink in color. Eupatorium cannabinum was used as a medicinal plant by the Greeks and Romans, as well as in medieval times to aid digestion and prevent constipation (). The roots of E. cannabinum are especially known to possess cholagogic properties and are also used in the treatment of liver diseases (). No information on the bioactive constituents from Eupatorium cannabinum, however, has been available so far, since phytochemical studies on E. cannabinum have been sparse and were mainly limited to the study of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from aerial parts of this species (). In the course of our continued interest in biologically active chromenes and benzofurans from the Asteraceae Read more […]

Antimicrobial activity of eucalyptus oils

The preservative properties of the volatile oils and extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognised since Biblical times, while attempts to characterise these properties in the laboratory date back to the early 1900s (e.g. Hoffman and Evans 1911). Martindale (1910) included ‘Eucalyptus amygdalina’ (probably the phellandrene variant of Eucalyptus dives) and Eucalyptus globulus oils, as well as eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), in his study of the antiseptic powers of essential oils and although the ‘carbolic coefficients’ of eucalyptus oils were not as great as those for oils containing large amounts of phenolics – such as origanum (carvacrol), cinnamon leaf (eugenol) and thyme (thymol) – they did, nevertheless, give some quantitative measure of the antiseptic properties of eucalyptus leaf oils. Many volatile oils – particularly those of herbs and spices, but including those from Eucalyptus – have been used to extend the shelf-life of foods, beverages and pharmaceutical and cosmetic products; their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties have also pointed to a role in plant protection. Such a wide variety of applications, actual or potential, has meant that the antimicrobial properties of Read more […]

Antibacterial activity of eucalyptus oils

The antibacterial properties of plant volatile oils have been recognised since antiquity and have been rediscovered in more recent times. Eucalyptus leaf oils have received attention in a number of studies. Deans and Ritchie () examined the antibacterial effects of fifty volatile oils purchased from a commercial supplier, including eucalyptus, on twenty-five different bacterial genera. The culture collection consisted of food spoilage, food poisoning, human, animal and plant disease types, along with indicators of faecal pollution and secondary opportunist pathogens. Eucalyptus oil was most effective against Elavobacterium suaveolens and the dairy organism Leuconostoc cremoris. However, it was not amongst the ten most inhibitory oils (thyme, cinnamon, bay, clove, bitter almond, lovage, pimento, marjoram, angelica and nutmeg). Leaf oils from eight Brazilian-grown eucalypts were tested against Mycobacterium avium by Leite et al. (): E. botryoides, E. camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora, E. deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis, E. maculata and E. tereticornis. M. avium was sensitive to all the oils at 10mg/ml but only four of them at 5 mg/ml: Eucalyptus citriodora, E. maculata, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Read more […]

Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch (Bergenia)

Bergenia crassifolia (L.) Fritsch, a species in the Bergenia genus belongs to the family Saxifragaceae, the order Rosales. For more than 100 years the plant has been known in Asia as a valuable raw material, a source of tannins and pigments. Apart from that, Bergenia crassifolia has been used as a medicinal and ornamental plant. Due to its rich and varied chemical composition (arbutin, tannins, bergenin) the species continues to be the object of pharmaceutical and pharmacological studies. In the light of research confirming the usefulness of this plant as a source of chemical compounds, it has become increasingly obvious that plant tissue culture should be employed to provide ‘a method of rapid multiplication of Bergenia crassifolia as an alternative to propagation from seeds. The second part of this chapter deals with arbutin determination in regenerated plants. The observations are based on the results of the experiments carried out by the authors. Systematics and Distribution of Bergenia Plants The genus Bergenia Moench (Meth. pi. 1794) which is also known in the literature under the synonymous Geryonia Schrank, Megarea Haw., Eropheron Tausch., Piarophylla Raf. and Saxifraga L. is said to consist of 11 species Read more […]

Pharmacological Effects of Thyme

Antimicrobial effects of thyme essential oils and thyme preparations Antibacterial effects The first researcher who attributed antibacterial properties to thyme (without specifying the species) was Chamberlain in 1887, after observing the antibacterial effect of its “vapours” on Bacillus anthracis. Since then, numerous studies with essential oils of different species of Thymus have been carried out. They were shown to inhibit a broad spectrum of bacteria, generally Gram-positive bacteria being more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria. This became obvious in some screening studies administering Thymus oils to a variety of bacteria. Recently the antibacterial activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil against some important food-borne pathogens, namely Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni, was tested. The latter was found to be the most resistant of the bacteria investigated. In another study it was shown that the essential oil of thyme and especially its phenols, thymol and carvacrol, have antibacterial acivity against periodontopathic bacteria including Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Eikenella, and Bacteroides species, and Read more […]

Pharmacology of Black Pepper

Many spices used in food seasoning have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Their antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation enhances the keeping quality of food. Apart from the use as a popular spice and flavouring substance, black pepper as drug in the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine is well documented. In the Ayurvedic descriptions, pepper is described as katu (pungent), tikta (bitter), usbnaveerya (potency, leading to storing up of energy, easy digestion, diaphoresis, thirst and fatigue), to subdue vatta (all the biological phenomena controlled by CNS and autonomic nervous system) and kapha (implies the function of heat regulation, and also formation of various preservative fluids like mucus, synovia etc. The main functions of kapha is to provide co-ordination of the body system and regularization of all biological activities). Pepper is described as a drug which increases digestive power, improves appetite, cures cold, cough, dyspnoea, diseases of the throat, intermittent fever, colic, dysentery, worms and piles; also useful in tooth ache, pain in liver and muscle, inflammation, leucoderma and epileptic fits. Black pepper is called maricha or marica in Sanskrit, indicating its property to dispel Read more […]

Aloes and the immune system: Specific activities

Anti-inflammatory effects The ability of aloe leaf gels to reduce the severity of acute inflammation has been evaluated in many different animal models. For example, Adler studied inflammation in the hind paw of the experimental rat induced by kaolin, carrageenan, albumin, dextran, gelatin and mustard. Of the various irritants tested, Aloe vera was especially active against gelatin-induced and kaolin-induced edema and had, in contrast, minimal activity when tested against dextran-induced edema. Ear swelling induced by croton oil has also been used as an assay. The swelling induced by croton oil on a mouse ear is significantly reduced by application of an aloe gel. In addition, soluble acemannan-rich extracts administered either orally or by intraperitoneal injection to mice will also reduce this swelling. In another model, the acute pneumonia induced in mouse lungs by inhalation of a bacterial endotoxin solution is significantly reduced by systemic administration of an aloe carbohydrate solution. In both these cases the reduction in inflammation is associated with a significant reduction in tissue infiltration by neutrophils. In general, aloe free of anthraquinones was more effective than aloe with anthraquinone. Some Read more […]

Ruta graveolens

Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and its tissue cultures are investigated from a wide variety of aspects, such as botanical studies, medicinal activities, chemical constituents and biosynthesis of some compounds. The in vitro culture of Ruta, quick-growing and with strong biogenetic potentialities, is an optimal implement for biochemical and physiological studies, and many research teams are using it in various fields which are reported in this chapter. Distribution and Importance of the Plant The genus Ruta belongs to the family Rutaceae, subfamily Rutoideae and tribe Ruteae. The subtribe Rutinae contains the following genera: Ruta L., Haplophyllum A. Juss., Thamnosma Torr. and Fr. and Boenninghausenia Reichb. Engler (1931) included Ruta and Haplophyllum in one genus. However, Waterman (1975) found that from a chemical standpoint Haplophyllum and Thamnosma are similar, but quite different from Ruta. According to the Flora Europaea, five species are assigned to the genus Ruta (). Ruta graveolens L. (common names: Engl.: common rue, herb of grace; French: rue fetide; German: Gartenraute; Spanish: ruda, arruda) is a well-known evergreen, half shrubby plant of 0.5 to 1 m in height, with leaves two- to three-pinnate and Read more […]