Quercus spp. (Oak)

The genus Quercus covers several hundred species and natural hybrids, distributed mainly over the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere (subgenus euquercus), as well as in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia (subgenus cyclobalanopsis). Oaks may be evergreen or deciduous trees, arborescent shrubs, or bushes. Their longevity often exceeds 400 years (). The different tissues of oak trees often accumulate large amounts of poly-phenols. These polyphenols are mainly tannins. The bark of Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Europe (known as tan) (Meunier and Vaney 1903), and that of Quercus velutina and Quercus prinus in the United States (), were used on a large scale in the leather industry until the end of the last century. Bark, acorn cups, and galls from oaks, all rich in tannins, have been traditionally used in pharmacology for their astringent, hemostatic, and antiseptic properties. Tannic acid produced from galls of Quercus infectoria has been most commonly used; acorns from Quercus robur and galls from Quercus suber, as well as barks from both species, have also been used (). The main therapeutic applications of these tannins were externally to heal wounds, burns, dermatosis, hemorrhoids, etc., and Read more […]

Eucalyptus oil products: Formulations and legislation

Eucalyptus oils are being used with increasing frequency in a variety of products found in the supermarket or pharmacy. ‘With extract of Eucalyptus’ or ‘With Eucalyptus essential oil’ claims are becoming more common on the labels of modern consumer products such as cosmetics, toiletries and household products due to the ever-increasing interest in natural or botanical ingredients. Eucalyptus oil may be used as an active ingredient to provide scientifically provable benefits – such as nasal decongestion or antibacterial effects – or at much lower dosages to impart more esoteric or folkloric connotations to the product concerned. Eucalyptus oils are also used as components of perfumes to provide a medicinal-type note to the fragrance. Eucalyptus globulus, or Blue Gum, oil was a traditional Australian aboriginal remedy for infections and fevers. It is now used all over the world for relieving coughs and colds, sore throats and other infections. Its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, is mucolytic (i.e. it thins out and relaxes the flow of mucus) and is excreted through the lung surface. Eucalyptus radiata oil is sometimes preferred by aromatherapists for its more pleasant smell while Eucalyptus smithii oil is Read more […]

The use of eucalyptus oils in consumer products

Insect repellents As noted in the introduction, Eucalyptus citriodora oil has been used as a ‘natural’ insect repellent. Depending on the product formulation it is used in, Lemon Eucalyptus (known as Quwenling in China) is up to four or five times more effective and longer-lasting than citronella oil (from Cymbopogon nardus), one of the best known natural insect repellents. p-Menthane-3,8-diol is the main active component of Quwenling and this can be isolated and used as a highly effective insect repellent. Eucalyptus citriodora oil contains up to 80–90 per cent citronellal, along with geraniol, both of which are known to have insect repellent activity but tend to dilute the much higher activity of the p-menthane-3,8-diol. The Mosi-guard Natural insect repellent spray produced by MASTA in the UK contains ‘Extract of Lemon Eucalyptus’ and claims on the label: Approved and recommended by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Field trials have shown effective protection for 6 h after a single application in mosquito infected areas. Also protects against many other biting insects. Mosi-guard Natural is made from a natural and renewable resource. It is kind to your skin and has no adverse effects Read more […]

Citrus in Traditional Medicine

Citrus in traditional Asiatic medicine In a comparative study of the use of herbal drugs in the traditional medicines of India and Europe, Pun () found a marked similarity between the drugs used in the two continents. He attributed this not only to the similarity of the vegetation in the two areas, but also to the influence that traditional Indian medicine, in particular the Atherveda, one of the most ancient repositories of human knowledge, had on Egypt, Greece and Rome. He listed the principal uses of a small number of these drugs, including bitter orange peel, which in India is used as an aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent and carminative agent, and lemon, which is used as a flavouring and for its carminative and stomachic effects. In the Valmiki-Ramayana, written after the Vedas and one of the most sacred of all religious books which enumerates the virtues of the medicinal plants that Lord Rama (Vishnu) met during his fourteen-year journey around different parts of India, Karnick and Hocking () identified and listed fifty of these drugs with their use as described in the Ayurvedica (or native Indian) system of medicine. The immature fruit of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle was used as an fortifier, Read more […]

Symphytum officinale (Comfrey)

Symphytum officinale L. and Symphytum asperum L. (Boraginaceae) are allopatric taxa, which are able to intercross and to form interspecific hybrids with different chromosome numbers. The species differ not only in a number of morphological characters but also ecologically, Symphytum asperum being a species of higher elevations (upper montane zone), Symphytum officinale of lowland and the lower montane zone. Symphytum asperum is a Caucasian species, which has the sporophytic chromosome number 2n = 32. It was introduced from the Caucasus into Europe as a fodder plant. Symphytum officinale is variable, containing cytotypes with 2n = 24, 48, 56, 40, and occurs throughout Europe. The most common chromosome number of Symphytum officinale is 2n = 48. Scattered diploid populations of 2n = 24 occur in Western, Central, and Eastern Europe; they are white-flowered throughout. The tetraploids are white- or purple-flowered in western Europe and purple in eastern Europe. Populations in which purple- and white-flowered individuals occur intermingled are very common in western Europe. In eastern Europe, mixed populations are very rare and consist of white-flowered diploid plants with purple-flowered tetraploid plants. The cytotype Read more […]

Fenugreek: Marketing

From time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world trade due to their varied properties and applications. We primarily depend on spices for flavor and fragrance as well as for color, as a preservative and for its inherent medicinal qualities. Although about 107 spices are recorded, only about a dozen are important – black pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, large cardamom, cumin, coriander, fennel, fenugreek, chillies, saffron and celery. Of all those spices the marketing analysis here will focus on fenugreek, although problems frequently arise with production and trade statistics since spice products are frequently combined under one heading. Although the spice industry has undergone substantial changes since early developments, the product range and the global pattern of trade has not altered radically. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Asian producers had achieved a dominant position in the export of spices, British India was by far the most important of these followed by Japan, Thailand, China and Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). The main flow of trade was to Ceylon (Sri Lanka), which was the hub of the Asian market, and to the British Straits Settlement (now Malaysia) in which Read more […]

Fenugreek: Market structure of the main exporting and importing countries

Fenugreek is traded mainly in seed form and to a lesser extent as a spice and as an extract (oil, oleoresin). However, all three forms of traded fenugreek are often aggregated with other seeds, spices or extracts in trade statistics thus impeding the exact calculation of fenugreek traded volume. Here, an attempt is made to outline the market structure for fenugreek products in the major importing and exporting countries. Exporting countries India India has a predominant position in the world spice trade with substantial production back up and availability of a wide range of spices. India produces over two million tons of spices every year. The total world trade in spices is only one-fifth of India’s spice production. India is the largest supplier accounting for more than one-third of the total world spice trade of 450,000 tons. Indian spices are exported to over 130 countries. India is a major supplier of a large number of seed spices such as coriander, cumin, celery, fennel, fenugreek, garlic, etc. India is also the leading manufacturer and supplier of spice oil and oleoresins. Spice exports from India until recently were in raw form and in bulk packaging. The recent changes in market behavior, changes in consumer Read more […]

Aloes and the immune system

There is a moderate scientific literature on the immunological effects of extracts from plants of the genus Aloe. Unfortunately, it is difficult to assess the significance of many of these studies because of two problems. First, most studies have been undertaken using many different, poorly characterized, complex aloe extracts. Second, studies have been performed using several different Aloe species, making comparisons impossible. Although anecdotal reports describe a wide variety of both immunostimulating and immunosuppressive effects, controlled scientific studies have substantiated very few of these. Most studies that have been performed have focused on the clear mesophyll gel of the Aloe vera leaf and on its major storage carbohydrate, acetylated mannan (acemannan). Recently a unique pectin has been isolated from aloe mesophyll cell walls and appears to have unique and important properties. Some consistent properties have, however, been noted. Thus aloe gel extracts and partially purified acemannan preparations have mild anti-inflammatory activity and multiple possible pathways for this activity have been investigated. Aloe extracts also have some limited macrophage activating properties. These include the release Read more […]

Trigonella Species

The Plant The Leguminosae (syn. Fabaceae) family is one of the three largest families of flowering plants. There is still no general agreement regarding the number of genera and species. Estimates vary between 590-690 genera and 12,000-17,000 species. The family is divided into three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. The genus Trigonella sensu stricto belongs to the latter subfamily and is composed of 75 species. The name of the genus derives from the Latin Trigonus, “three-angled” in reference to the small, triangular appearance of the flower. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is an erect, annual, herbaceous plant widely distributed in many parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. It is 10-50 cm high, sparsely pubescent with leaves pinnately three-foliolate. Leaflets (20-50 x 10-15 mm) are obovate to oblong-oblanceolate and denticulate. Flowers are solitary or in pairs in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is short (6-8mm) and the corolla (12-18mm) is yellowish-white tinged with violet at the base. The fruit (legume) (60-110 x 4-6 mm) is linear, somewhat curved, glabrous or glabrescent with longitudinal veins. The seeds (2-6 x 2-4 mm) are quadrangular, somewhat compressed, yellow or Read more […]

Historical review of the use of lavender

The classical physicians Lavender has been used as a healing plant and was first mentioned by Dioscorides (c. 40—90 AD) who found what was probably Lavandula stoechas growing on the islands of Stoechades (now known as Hyeres); this was used in Roman communal baths. Dioscorides attributed to the plant some laxative and invigorating properties and advised its use in a tea-like preparation for chest complaints. The author also recounts that Galen (129—99 ad) added lavender to his list of ancient antidotes for poison and bites and thus Nero’s physician used it in anti-poison pills and for uterine disorders. Lavender in wine was taken for snake bites stings, stomach aches, liver, renal and gall disorders, jaundice and dropsy. Pliny differentiated between Lavandula stoechas and Lavandula vera, the latter was apparently used only for diluting expensive perfumes. Pliny the Elder advocated lavender for bereavement as well as promoting menstruation. Abbess Hildegard The Abbess Hildegard (1098—1179) of Bingen near the Rhine in what is now Germany, was the first person in the Middle Ages to clearly distinguish between Lavandula vera and Lavandula spica (): On Palsy one who is tormented should take galangale, with Read more […]