The Effects of Tea on the Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular diseases, together with cancers, are the main killing diseases of humans in the world. Of the cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis is one of the most prevalent. Atherosclerosis is primarily caused by hypercholesterolemia in which excess cholesterol accumulates in the blood vessels and oxidation of low-density cholesterol (LDL) leads to foci of endothelial abnormalities associated with the process of atherosclerosis (). It deteriorates further with the oxidation of lipids in the blood. Therefore, in order to maintain the cardiovascular system in good condition, it is very important to prevent not only an excessive increase of cholesterols in the blood, but also the oxidation of lipids in the blood. Hypertension is another major factor that can affect the health of the cardiovascular system. In this article, the antioxidative, hypolipidemic, hypotensive and the obesity-depressing activity of tea will be discussed. Antioxidative Activity of Tea Blood-Pressure Lowering Activity of Tea Blood Lipid and Cholesterol Lowering Effect Excessive lipids in blood is a common disorder of middle aged or old aged men and women. High serum-lipid includes high cholesterol and triglyceride content in blood. The cholesterol Read more […]

Antioxidative Activity of Tea

The role of free radical and active oxygen in the pathogenesis of certain human diseases, including aging, cardiovascular disease and cancer is becoming increasingly recognized. Lipid peroxidation has been regarded as one of the mechanisms of senescence of humans and the cause of atherosclerosis. Because of their very high chemical reactivity, free radicals show very short lifetimes in biological systems. However, the excessive amounts of free radicals are able to produce metabolic disturbances and to damage membrane structures in a variety of ways. Therefore, much attention has been focused on the use of antioxidants, especially natural antioxidants, to inhibit lipid peroxidation or to protect the damage of free radicals. Many investigations indicated that intake of certain amounts of fruits and vegetables that contain a large quantity of vitamin C and vitamin E showed antioxidative activity. Tea is not only rich in vitamin C and E, but also contains an important group of polyphenols, i.e., catechins, which display obvious antioxidative activity. The polyphenols are able to act as antioxidants by virture of the hydrogen-donating capacity of their phenol groups, as well as their metal-chelating potential (). As early Read more […]

Commonly used chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla

As mentioned above, Perilla is often used together with other Chinese herbs in many herb formulas, especially in the qi formulas used for treating neurotic disorders, and respiratory diseases. In addition, it is also commonly used as a diaphoretic for common cold. Some commonly used Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf are shown in Tables Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf and Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf as recorded in the pharmacopoeia of PRC. And some commonly used Chinese herb formulas containing Perilla seed or fruit are shown in Table Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla seed. Table Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf Formula Source Number of Herbs Content (%) of   Perilla Leaf Pinellia and Magnolia Combination Jin-gui-yao-lue 5 10.0 Ephedra and Magnolia Combination Wai-tai-mi-yao 7 7.5 Cyperus and Perilla Formula Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 5 15.0 Ginseng and Perilla Combination Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 13 4.4 Dang-guei Sixteen Herbs Combination Wan-bing-hui-chun 16 5.3 Aquilaria and Perilla Formula Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 11 9.8 Citrus Read more […]

Turmeric as Spice and Flavorant

  Spices are the plant products or a mixture thereof free from extraneous matter, cultivated, and processed for their aroma, pungency, flavor and fragrance, natural color, and medicinal qualities or otherwise desirable properties. They consist of rhizomes, bulbs, barks, flower buds, stigmata, fruits, seeds, and leaves of plant origin. Spices are food adjuncts, which have been in use for thousands of years, to impart flavor and aroma or piquancy to foods. They are used to prepare culinary dishes and have little or no nutritive value, but they stimulate the appetite, add zest for food, enhance the taste, and delight the gourmet. As there is a need to reduce the fat, salt, and sugar used in food preparation for health reasons, it becomes critical to pay attention to alternative ways to enhance the natural flavors of foods. Value can also be added to meals by enhancing and improving presentation and by using appropriate garnishes. The primary function of a spice in food is to improve its sensory appeal to the consumer. Food presentation is the arrangement of food on a plate, tray, or steam line in a simple appetizing way. This is generally accomplished by imparting its own characteristic color, flavor, aroma, and Read more […]

Indonesian Cassia: Pests, Diseases

Many diseases and pests of C. verum also attack Cinnamomum burmannii (). The most serious disease is the stripe canker (cancer) caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi that often leads to widespread damage to plants (Djafaruddin and Hanafiah, 1975). Other diseases include pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor syn. C. javanicum), white rot (Fomes lignosus), rust (Accidium cinnamomi) and anthracnose (Glomerella cingulata). A list of diseases occurring in Indonesia is given below. As a tropical country Indonesia’s climate is conducive to the development of many pathogens. Usually, cinnamon grows in the wet climate with a relative humidity of 80–95%, which predisposes the plant to many pathogens. However, data on yield loss caused by pathogens in Indonesia is still very limited. Diseases commonly found on cinnamon plants in Indonesia are summarised below. Red rust (Cephaleuros sp.) Symptoms: Greyish orange or brownish orange spots on the upper leaf surface. On top of the spots can be seen the spores or conidia. On the lower leaf surface the spots appear brown. Black rust (Puccinia cinnamomi) Symptoms: Wet greyish brown irregular spots on the lower leaf surface. The spores of the fungi are clearly seen. Grey leaf Read more […]

Podophyllum spp.

Lignans, as natural products, are distributed widely in the plant kingdom. More than 200 compounds in this general class have been identified. Lignans have aroused considerable interest because some of them display antitumor activities. This is particularly true of the podophyllotoxin group of lignans, which are constituents of the medical resin extracted from Podophyllum species. Podophyllotoxins are a particularly instructive class of natural products for consideration in the design and synthesis of potential anticancer agents based upon natural product prototypes. History The medical use of Podophyllum species dates back over 1000 years. At that time the roots of wild chervil were used in a salve for treating cancer in England. About 400-600 years ago, the natives of the Himalayas and the American Indians independently discovered that the aqueous extracts of the roots (podophyllin) from Podophyllum species was a canthartic and poison. After the American Indians introduced the use of podophyllin to the American colonists, it became such a popular drug that it was included in the US Pharmacopoeia in 1820 as a canthartic and cholagog and remained until 1942, when it was removed because of its severe toxicity. However, Read more […]

Toxicology and Clinical Applications of Black Pepper

Toxicology of Black Pepper There are no data available on the acute or chronic toxicologic aspects of pepper and/ or its constituents. Pepper constituents are not used therapeutically in the allopathic system. Pepper has been in use since very early times as a spice and food additive. No health hazard or untoward action may arise in the concentrations used. The total contents of piperine and associated phenolic amides are of the order of 7–9 per cent w/w and that of the volatile oil are 2–4 per cent. At this level the actual doses of the different constituents available from the quantity of pepper powder, oleoresin or extractive used, will be very little to elicit any toxic reactions. Moreover, the pungent taste of piperine and flavour of the volatile oil constituents will themselves serve as a limiting factor for the intake of high doses. No acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Experts Committee on Food Additives for piperine and/or the volatile principles. The major untoward action of pepper is the gastric mucosal injury at a dose of 1.5 g/kg food. There are a few reports about the carcinogenic potential of piperine. It enhances the DNA adduct formation, and extract of pepper Read more […]

Pharmacology of Black Pepper

Many spices used in food seasoning have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Their antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation enhances the keeping quality of food. Apart from the use as a popular spice and flavouring substance, black pepper as drug in the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine is well documented. In the Ayurvedic descriptions, pepper is described as katu (pungent), tikta (bitter), usbnaveerya (potency, leading to storing up of energy, easy digestion, diaphoresis, thirst and fatigue), to subdue vatta (all the biological phenomena controlled by CNS and autonomic nervous system) and kapha (implies the function of heat regulation, and also formation of various preservative fluids like mucus, synovia etc. The main functions of kapha is to provide co-ordination of the body system and regularization of all biological activities). Pepper is described as a drug which increases digestive power, improves appetite, cures cold, cough, dyspnoea, diseases of the throat, intermittent fever, colic, dysentery, worms and piles; also useful in tooth ache, pain in liver and muscle, inflammation, leucoderma and epileptic fits. Black pepper is called maricha or marica in Sanskrit, indicating its property to dispel Read more […]

Aloes and the immune system

There is a moderate scientific literature on the immunological effects of extracts from plants of the genus Aloe. Unfortunately, it is difficult to assess the significance of many of these studies because of two problems. First, most studies have been undertaken using many different, poorly characterized, complex aloe extracts. Second, studies have been performed using several different Aloe species, making comparisons impossible. Although anecdotal reports describe a wide variety of both immunostimulating and immunosuppressive effects, controlled scientific studies have substantiated very few of these. Most studies that have been performed have focused on the clear mesophyll gel of the Aloe vera leaf and on its major storage carbohydrate, acetylated mannan (acemannan). Recently a unique pectin has been isolated from aloe mesophyll cell walls and appears to have unique and important properties. Some consistent properties have, however, been noted. Thus aloe gel extracts and partially purified acemannan preparations have mild anti-inflammatory activity and multiple possible pathways for this activity have been investigated. Aloe extracts also have some limited macrophage activating properties. These include the release Read more […]

Vaccinium Species

Distribution and Importance of the Plant The genus Vaccinium, from the heath family (Ericaceae), includes a wide range of popular berry species of economic importance, including the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), the wild lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), cultivated highbush and rabbiteye blueberries (V. corymbosum L. and V. ashei Reade), bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea L.). While these crops are well known throughout the world, in many cases, their individual distributions are quite narrow. Wild lowbush blueberry, for example, is localized in the extreme northeastern United States and maritime provinces of Canada (); bilberry is grown only in a few European countries with an isolated pocket of distribution in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA, and cranberry production, which until recently was confined to the eastern and western coasts of the USA, has recently expanded into higher elevations in South America. The harvested berries are marketed fresh, frozen, and in some cases, sweetened and dried (personal communication, D. Nolte, Decas Cranberry Co.). They are also popular components in bakery items, dried cereals, jams, juices, and numerous related Read more […]