Anxiety Disorders: Supplements With Possible Efficacy

In addition to supplements discussed above, a few other compounds may also have some efficacy in treating symptoms of anxiety. However, since the data that supports the use of the following supplements is extremely limited, clinicians should proceed with caution, and consider the use of the compounds discussed in this section as experimental. St. John’s Wort As described in site, St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an herb that exists in many species throughout the world, and it is widely used as an antidepressant. It is available in a variety of preparations, including capsules, liquid, oils, and raw herb to be brewed as tea. St. John’s Wort contains a plethora of active ingredients, including flavonoids, naphthodianthrones, phloroglucinols, phenolic acids, terpenes, and xanthones. These exert a variety of psychoactive effects, and several of these are described below. Of all herbal supplements, St. John’s Wort is the one that has been researched most extensively and there is strong support for its efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms. The use of St. John’s Wort as an anxiolytic is more recent, but a few studies suggest that is may be effective. Davidson and Connor (2001) reported case studies of patients Read more […]

ANTISYMPATHETIC AGENTS

ANTISYMPATHETIC AGENTS is a grouping of convenience intended to encompass all agents acting by one of the many mechanisms that lead to a reduction in the actions of the sympathetic nervous system, including those of poorly defined mechanism that are known to have this overall action. Antisympathetics are of particular importance in reducing vasomotor tone, and thence blood pressure. There are many of them and they will be grouped by site and mechanism of action. See also ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS. Central mechanisms. Some agents may act within the CNS to modify autonomic control of sympathetic tone and blood pressure. Clonidine inhibits release of noradrenaline by an agonist action at the autoinhibitory alpha2-adrenoceptors on sympathetic nerve endings. Methyldopa is thought to work, at least in part, centrally, acting both as an inhibitory false substrate in the biosynthetic pathway, also producing an active metabolite with actions at α2-adrenoceptors. Rauwolfia alkaloids, especially reserpine, which inhibit the monoamine transporters, were at one time used to treat hypertension, but the side-effects are marked. Biosynthetic pathway inhibitors. In both the central and periphery nervous systems, the biosynthetic Read more […]

Iron: Significant Interactions

Iron interacts with a variety of foods, herbs and drugs through several different mechanisms. Most commonly, the formation of insoluble complexes occurs whereby both iron and drug absorption is hindered. Separation of doses by several hours will often reduce the severity of this type of interaction. Additionally, substances that alter gastric pH have the theoretical ability to reduce iron absorption. A summary of interactions has been presented in table form for easy reference. Drug / therapeutic substance Mechanism Possible outcome Action required ACE inhibitors Reduced absorption of ACE inhibitors. A small clinical trial found that concomitant iron administration reduced area-under-the-curve plasma levels of unconjugated captopril by 37% Reduced drug effect Separate doses by at least 2 hours Antacids and products containing aluminium, calcium or magnesium Reduces iron absorption Reduced effect of iron Separate doses by at least 2 hours Ascorbic acid Increases iron absorption Increased effects of iron Beneficial interaction possible — caution in haemochromatosis Cholestyramineand colestipol In vitro investigations have shown that cholestyramineand colestipol Read more […]