Alimentary, Culinary and Industrial Uses of Caraway

 Chemical constituents and taste Spices provide of course only little contribution to the human nourishment. But they make food more tasty and enhances the appetite. The taste depends on certain chemical compounds mainly on essential oil content and composition. But not only the essential oil is responsible for the taste impression, also some of the other chemical components of caraway fruits are influencing the taste (). Beside the mentioned chemical compounds, caraway contains tocopherol and tocotrienole, phenol-carbonic acids such as caffeic acid and gentisic acid, phenols and flavones (flavonole, quercetin etc.). Description of the Taste It is well known that the sense of taste can be realized as salty, bitter, sour and sweet with the tongue. Pungency is an impression of temperature and pain. Additionally we are smelling with the olfactory nerve such odours as aromatic, fruity, flowery, resinous, but also foul or burning (). The taste and odour of caraway fruits is due to their essential oil content, which consists of two main components, the D(+)-carvone (45–60%) and the D(+)-limonene (35–55%). The latter one is not so important for the taste. To describe a taste is very difficult. Therefore many Read more […]

Ochrosia spp.

In recent years a worldwide search has been made for anti-cancerous agents of plant origin. As a result of these investigations, a large number of plant products have been identified as antineoplastic agents. However, in general, growth of these plants is slow and concentration of the compounds is extremely low. Furthermore, in some cases, it is difficult to obtain sufficient biomass because of the low propagation rate and the danger of extinguishing the plant species itself. The number of medicines used in anti-cancer chemotherapy is around 20; a large number of these drugs are, however, active but toxic. The compounds which intercalate with DNA are more interesting as antineoplastic therapeutic agents as compared to others. In this review, we will briefly survey the uses of ellipticine (an alkaloid isolated from Ochrosia species) and its derivatives as antitumor agents, and their production by plant tissue culture. The plant is commonly known as “bois jaune” “yellow wood” (for O. borbonica) in New Caledonia and “holei” (for O. sandwicensis) in Hawaii. Ochrosia spp.: Distribution The genus Ochrosia sensu lato consists of approximately 36 species of trees or woody shrubs occurring in Australia, and in islands of Read more […]

Althaea officinalis L. (Marshmallow)

Habit and Distribution of the Plant The genus Althaea belongs to the family Malvaceae and includes 12 species, which are located mainly in Europe, with the exception of the Scandinavian countries, and the Near East (western and north Asia). They are cultivated mainly in Germany, France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, Hungary, and Russia, and have been introduced in North and South America. The most important species of the genus is Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow), densely gray-pubescent perennial up to 1.5-2 m, with stellate hairs. Leaves triangularovate, acute, crenate-serrate, undivided or palmately 3-5-lobed, often somewhat plicate. Flowers solitary or clustered in axillary inflorescences shorter than the substanding leaf. Epicalix segments linear-lanceolate. Sepals ovate, acute, curved over the fruit. Petals, 15-20 mm, very pale, lilac-pink, rarely deeper pink. Anthers are purplish red. Mericarps more or less densely covered with stellate hairs. The chromosome number is 2n = 42. The plant has a woody rootstock from which numerous roots arise, up to 30 cm in length. The roots (Radix Althaea naturalis and mundata); the leaves (Folia Althaeae), and the flowers (Flores Althaeae) are used in medicine. Marshmallow Read more […]

Honey: Uses

Clinical Use BURNS Honey-dressed wounds had a more rapid reduction in local inflammation, better infection control and more rapid healing than for standard treatment with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) in a randomised clinical trial. Of the 25 patients with wounds, 84% treated with honey achieved satisfactory epithelialisation by day 7 and 100% by day 21 compared with 72% and 84% respectively with SSD. Histological evidence confirmed honey‘s superiority, with 80% of wounds showing significant reparative activity and decreased inflammation by day 7 compared with 52% with SSD. WOUND HEALING Honey applications have been used to treat various types of wounds, such as leg ulcers and bed sores. Honey has also been used to enhance postoperative wound healing and partial-thickness wounds such as split-thickness skin graft donor sites. One study involving 59 patients with wounds or ulcers not responding to conventional treatment were treated with topical unprocessed honey. Of these, 58 cases were reported as showing remarkable recovery, with all sterile wounds remaining sterile until healed and infected wounds becoming sterile within 1 week. The one case that did not respond involved a malignant ulcer. Clinically, honey promoted Read more […]