Applications and Prescriptions of Perilla in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Since the advent of “Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing” (Shen Nong’s Herbal), the progenitor of herbals in traditional Chinese medicine, completed around 25 A.D., which classified herbal drugs into upper grade, mid-grade and lower grade, all subsequent herbals classified Chinese herbal drugs according to this tradition. The upper grade drugs are known as the imperial drugs which are non-poisonous and arc used mainly for nurturing our lives; the mid-grade drugs are known as the ministerial drugs which are either non-poisonous or poisonous and are used chiefly to nurture our temperament; and the lower grade drugs are known as the assistant or servant drugs which are used for treating disease and are mostly poisonous. In clinical diagnosis, a physician of traditional Chinese medicine will first consider the circulation of qi, blood and water. The so-called blood conformation in traditional Chinese medicine (a conformation in traditional Chinese medicine can be approximated to a symptom complex or syndrome in Western medicine) refers to “blood stasis” which is a poor blood circulation condition resulted from congestion or stagnation of blood in the body and may lead to formation of disease. A water conformation is also referred Read more […]

Commonly used chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla

As mentioned above, Perilla is often used together with other Chinese herbs in many herb formulas, especially in the qi formulas used for treating neurotic disorders, and respiratory diseases. In addition, it is also commonly used as a diaphoretic for common cold. Some commonly used Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf are shown in Tables Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf and Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf as recorded in the pharmacopoeia of PRC. And some commonly used Chinese herb formulas containing Perilla seed or fruit are shown in Table Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla seed. Table Commonly used traditional Chinese herb formulas that contain Perilla leaf Formula Source Number of Herbs Content (%) of   Perilla Leaf Pinellia and Magnolia Combination Jin-gui-yao-lue 5 10.0 Ephedra and Magnolia Combination Wai-tai-mi-yao 7 7.5 Cyperus and Perilla Formula Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 5 15.0 Ginseng and Perilla Combination Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 13 4.4 Dang-guei Sixteen Herbs Combination Wan-bing-hui-chun 16 5.3 Aquilaria and Perilla Formula Tai-ping-hui-min-he-ji-ju-fang 11 9.8 Citrus Read more […]

Pharmacology of Black Pepper

Many spices used in food seasoning have broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Their antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation enhances the keeping quality of food. Apart from the use as a popular spice and flavouring substance, black pepper as drug in the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine is well documented. In the Ayurvedic descriptions, pepper is described as katu (pungent), tikta (bitter), usbnaveerya (potency, leading to storing up of energy, easy digestion, diaphoresis, thirst and fatigue), to subdue vatta (all the biological phenomena controlled by CNS and autonomic nervous system) and kapha (implies the function of heat regulation, and also formation of various preservative fluids like mucus, synovia etc. The main functions of kapha is to provide co-ordination of the body system and regularization of all biological activities). Pepper is described as a drug which increases digestive power, improves appetite, cures cold, cough, dyspnoea, diseases of the throat, intermittent fever, colic, dysentery, worms and piles; also useful in tooth ache, pain in liver and muscle, inflammation, leucoderma and epileptic fits. Black pepper is called maricha or marica in Sanskrit, indicating its property to dispel Read more […]

Heartsease: Modern Applications

Grieve offers many more names for this plant, among them: love lies bleeding, love idol, Jack-jump-up-and-kiss-me, Kit run in the fields, stepmother, pink-eyed John, bouncing Bet. Discussing the names, she tells how the plant was prized for its potency as a love charm ‘in ancient days’, hence perhaps its name heartsease. Along with the uses familiar from the Renaissance authors, Grieve records the flowers were formerly considered cordial and good in diseases of the heart, attributing to this use a further possible origin of the name heartsease. Grieve offers no source for use of the plant as cordial. There is no obvious mention of this in our authors up to this point. Perhaps it stems more from a folk tradition, or perhaps even from a misinterpretation somewhere of the word angina. Leyel (1949) accords the herb cordial properties. She cites the past uses as in our authors, adds ‘a good herb in disorders of the blood’, and mentions its use in ‘moist cutaneous eruptions in children’, particularly crusta lactea and tinea capitis. Then she continues ‘it has derived the name heartsease partly from its early use as a heart tonic and it can be taken quite safely to relieve palpitation of the heart and to soothe a tired and Read more […]


Pathophysiology Hyperthyroidism, or thyrotoxicosis, is the result of excessive levels of circulating thyroid hormones. It is characterized by elevated total T4, free T4, free thyroxine index, and/or tri-iodothyronine and tri-iodothyronine resin uptake. Low thyroid-stimulating hormone and normal levels of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine characterize subclinical hyperthyroidism, and it has the same causes as overt hyperthyroidism. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder in which stimulatory anti-TSH receptor antibodies are formed, comprises the majority of hyperthyroid cases. In fact, the strongest risk factor for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is the presence of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. These antibodies are directed toward the receptors in the cell membrane of the thyroid gland, causing the gland to increase growth, size, and function. Graves’ disease is characterized by several common features, including thyrotoxicosis, goiter, exophthalmos, and pretibial myxedema. Graves’ disease is eight times more common in women than men, typically presents between the ages of 20 and 40 years old, and the most common presentation is a diffuse nonpain-ful goiter. It may be more prevalent in some genetic HLA haplotypes. There Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: St John’s wort

Hypericum perforatum L. (Clusiaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Hypericum, Millepertuis. Hypericum noeanum Boiss., Hypericum veronense Schrank. Pharmacopoeias St John’s Wort (British Ph 2009, European Ph 2008, US Ph 32); St John’s Wort Dry Extract, Quantified (British Ph 2009, European Ph, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4). Constituents The main groups of active constituents of St John’s wort are thought to be the anthraquinones, including hypericin, isohypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin and cyclopseudohypericin, and the prenylated phloroglucinols, including hyperforin and adhyperforin. Flavonoids, which include kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin and rutin; biflavonoids, which include biapigenin and amentoflavone, and catechins are also present. Other polyphenolic constituents include caffeic and chlorogenic acids, and a volatile oil containing methyl-2-octane. Most St John’s wort products are standardised at least for their hypericin content (British Pharmacopoeia 2009), even though hyperforin is known to be a more relevant therapeutic constituent, and some preparations are now standardised for both (The United Read more […]