Botanical Treatment Of Nausea And Vomiting Of Pregnancy And Hyperemesis Gravidarum

According to Borrelli et al., the potential teratogenic effects of drugs administered during the critical embryogenie period of pregnancy drastically limit their use. Because of this, many pregnant women turn to complementary and alternative therapies including vitamins, herbal products, homeopathic preparation, acupressure, and acupuncture. A recent literature survey reports that the most commonly used botanicals for the treatment of morning sickness are ginger, chamomile, peppermint, and raspberry leaf. Only ginger has been subjected to investigation of its safety and efficacy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Botanical Treatment Strategies for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and Hyperemesis Gravidarum Therapeutic Goal Therapeutic Activity Botanical Name Common Name Reduce nausea and vomiting Antinauseant  Antiemetic Cannabis spp. Marijuana Mentha piperita Peppermint Zingiber officinalis Ginger Relieve stomach cramps Antispasmodic Dioscorea villosa Wild yam Matricaria recutita Chamomile Support digestion / appetite Digestive bitters Ballota nigra Black horehound Taraxacum officinale Dandelion root   The botanical approach to Read more […]

Ferula assafoetida

Common Names Pakistan Anjadana Bangladesh Hing England Asafetida India Hing Croatia Asafetida India Hingu Finland Asafetida India Ingu Germany Asafetida India Inguva Guyana Asafetida Afghanistan Kama I anguza Iceland Asafetida Pakistan Kama I anguza Lithuania Asafetida India Kayam Netherlands Asafetida Laos Ma ha hing Poland Asafetida France Merde du diable Russia Asafetida Mozambique Mvuje Spain Asafetida Tanzania Mvuje Sweden Asafetida Zaire Mvuje United States Asafetida Hungary Ordoggyoker France Asafetide India Perungayam Estonia Asafootida India Perunkaya Germany Asafotida Sri Lanka Perunkayan Germany Asant Finland Pirunpaska France Assa Foetida Finland Pirunpihka Italy Assafetida India Raamathan China A-wei Iran Rechina fena Greece Aza Netherlands Sagapeen United States Devil’s dung Turkey Setan bokosu Iceland Djoflatao Turkey Seytan tersi Latvia Driveldrikis Myanmar Sheingho Netherlands Duivelsdrek Tibet Shing-kun Denmark Dyvelsdrak Germany Stinkasant Norway Dyvelsdrekk United States Stinking Read more […]

Herbs For Gastrointestinal Disorders

In herbal medicine, there is a recognized fundamental linkage between the gut and systemic health in conditions as widely ranging as asthma, atopy, autoimmune disease, and even arthritis. This is important, considering that the gut plays a significant role in immune function. Herbalists emphasize the health of the digestive system, bowel movements, and any symptoms related to gut function — even mild digestive disturbances such as burping, mild constipation, inconsistent stools, or excessive flatulence are always considered significant, even if not the reason for presentation for consultation. The herbs outlined below are useful in gastrointestinal health and disease management and are supported by traditional use or research. The lists are by no means complete, and there are differences in the potency of the actions of the individual herbs. However, by knowing the particulars of the patient, an herb might be chosen for its breadth of action when more than 1 system is involved or for a particularly strong action that is needed. Sometimes only a gentle stimulation, triggering an appropriate reflex response or dampening a response, may be all that’s needed to reach equilibrium again. The beauty and art of herbal Read more […]

Stress: Eleuthero

Eleuthero, a native of northeast Asia, is used in traditional Chinese medicine for general weakness and debility, lassitude, anorexia, insomnia, and dream-disturbed sleep. Its use as an adaptogen originated in the former Soviet Union, in the latter half of the twentieth century, when it was researched and promoted by scientists as a substitute for Panax ginseng, which was more expensive and less accessible. Pharmacologic studies have suggested that its effects are at least equal to, and perhaps superior to those of Panax ginseng. Until recently referred to as Siberian ginseng, the herb is now properly referred to as Eleuthero, because of recognition that although the plants are from the same family, their actions arise from very different chemical constituents. Eleuthero’s actions much like ginseng, are considered immunomodulating, stress reducing, performance and energy enhancing, anabolic, and adapto-genic, hence the original misnomer. The herb has demonstrated the ability to improve adrenal function, stress tolerance, enhance immune function and resistance to infection including influenza, and enhance selective memory.” The plant contains phenyl-propionates (e.g., syringin, caffeic acid, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: Cat’s claw

Uncaria tomentosa DC, Uncaria guianensis J.F.Gmel. (Rubiaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Life-giving vine of Peru, Samento, Saventaro, Una de gato. Pharmacopoeias Cat’s Claw (US Ph 32); Powdered Cat’s Claw (US Ph 32); Powdered Cat’s Claw Extract (US Ph 32); Cat’s Claw Tablets (US Ph 32); Cat’s Claw Capsules (The United States Ph 32). Constituents The main constituents of both the closely related species of cat’s claw include the tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, isorhynchophylline and rhynchophylline, and the indole alkaloids, dihydrocoryynantheine, hirsutine, and hirsuteine. Quinovic acid glycosides have also been isolated. Note that there are two chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa, one primarily containing the tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids, isorhynochophylline and rhynchopylline, and one primarily containing the pentacychc oxindole alkaloids, (iso)pteropodine and (iso)mitraphylline. Use and indications Cat’s claw roots, bark and leaves have been used for gastric ulcers, arthritis, gonorrhoea, dysentry, herpes zoster, herpes simplex and HIV, and as a contraceptive. In various preclinical studies, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunostimulating, antimutagenic, antitumour and hypotensive Read more […]

LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT TERPENOIDS, PHENYLPROPANOIDS, AND VOLATILE OILS

Terpenoids are synthesized via the mevalonate and deoxyxylulose pathways with the use of a five-carbon building block known as isoprene. This family of constituents has many different members, each with five more carbons than the last as another isoprene is added (Types of Terpenoids). Types of Terpenoids Terpenoid Class Basic Structure Number of Isoprene Units Miscellaneous Notes Monoterpenoid C10H16 2 Usually volatile Iridoid C10H16 (bicyclic) 2 Subclass of monoterpenoids Sesquiterpenoid C15H24 3 Usually volatile Sesquiterpene lactone C15H24 (cyclic ketone) 3 Subclass of sesquiterpenoids Diterpenoid C20H32 4 Not usually volatile. Often in resins Triterpenoid C30H48 6 Nonvolatile Tetraterpenoid (carotenoid) C40H64 8 Nonvolatile Polyterpenoids >C40 10+ Nonvolatile Monoterpenoids, made up of two isoprene units, are the smallest and simplest type of terpenoids (Select Low-Molecular-Weight Terpenoid-Rich Herbs). They are of sufficiently low molecular weight that they tend to volatilize readily. Their close cousins are the sesquiterpenoids, with three isoprene units. They are also of sufficiently light molecular Read more […]

ANTIULCEROGENIC AGENTS

ANTIULCEROGENIC AGENTS (or ulcer-healing drugs) are used to promote healing of ulceration of gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers. A number of classes of drugs may be used. See also gastric secretion inhibitors. First, the HISTAMINE H2-ANTAGONISTS are very effective and have considerable usage, e.g. cimetidine. famotidine, nizatidine and ranitidine. These agents decrease gastric acid secretion and promote healing and may be used to treat dyspepsia and oesophagitis of a number of etiologies. Acid production is also very effectively reduced by the newer agents, the proton pump inhibitors, e.g. omeprazole (see GASTRIC PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS). Anticholinergic drugs are only really suitable in the case of agents that show some gastric-selectivity, e.g. pirenzepine and telenzepine (see muscarinic cholinoceptor ANTAGONISTS). They work by reducing the secretion of peptic acid by the stomach mucosa. Some prostaglandin analogues are effective in protecting the mucosa, and are incorporated into some preparations of NSAIDs to offer concurrent protection (though they may cause unacceptable stimulation of the ileum), e.g. misoprostol. (see prostanoid receptor agonists) . Bismuth-containing antacid preparations have been Read more […]

Dong quai: Background. Actions

Historical Note Dong quai is an aromatic herb commonly used in TCM. Its reputation is second to that of ginseng and is regarded as a ‘female’ remedy, or women’s ginseng. Used in combination with other herbs, dong quai is used to treat numerous menstrual disorders and menopausal symptoms, as well as abdominal pain, migraine headache, rheumatism and anaemia. Dong quai (Angelica sinensis) is closely related to the European Angelica archangelica, a common garden herb and the flavouring in Benedictine and Chartreuse liqueurs. Common Name Dong quai Other Names Chinese angelica, dang gui, women’s ginseng, tang kuei Botanical Name / Family Angelica sinensis (synonym: Angelica polymorpha sinensis) (family Apiaceae [Umbelliferae] — carrot family) Plant Part Used Root Chemical Components Dong quai contains essential oil (0.4-0.7%) consisting of 45% ligustilide, n-butylphthalide, cadinene, carvacrol, safrole and isosafrol. The root also contains sucrose (40%) and various lactonesand vitamins, together with phytosterols, ferulic acid and coumarins, including osthole, psoralen and bergapten. Ferulic acid and ligustilide are considered to be the main active components and it has been suggested that assessment of total Read more […]

Feverfew: Background. Actions

Historical Note Feverfew has been used for centuries in Europe to treat headaches, arthritis and fever and used as an emmenagogue and anthelmintic agent. In the 1970s it was ‘rediscovered’ by the medical establishment and subjected to clinical studies, which produced encouraging results that suggested feverfew was an effective prophylactic medicine for migraine headache. Other Names Altamisa, bachelor’s button, camomile grande, featherfew, featherfoil, chrysanthemum parthenium, mutterkraut, matrem, tanaceti parthenii herba/folium Botanical Name / Family Tanacetum parthenium (family [Asteraceae] Compositae) Plant Part Used Leaf Chemical Components The leaves and flowering tops contain many monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as well as sesquiterpenes lactones (chrysanthemolide, chrysanthemonin, 10-epi-canin, magnoliolide and parthenolide), reynosin, santamarin, tanaparthins and other compounds. Until recently, the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolidewas thought to be the major biologically active constituent. However, in vitro and in vivo research suggests others are also present. Clinical note – Natural variations in parthenolide content The amount of parthenolide present in commercial preparations of feverfew Read more […]

Garlic: Uses

Clinical Use Most studies have used a non-enteric coated dehydrated garlic powder preparation standardised to 1.3% alliin content (Kwai, Lichtwer Pharma) or an aged garlic extract (Kyolic, Wakunaga of America). CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of CVD in general. This review will consider the evidence for garlic in the management of specific risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Additionally, investigation into the effects of garlic directly on the atherosclerotic and arteriosclerotic processes is presented. Hypertension A meta-analysis of seven clinical trials using a garlic preparation, produced commercially as Kwai, found that three showed a significant reduction in SBP and four in DBP. Kwai was used in these studies in the dosage of 600-900 mg daily. Garlic treatment resulted in a mean reduction in SBP of 7.7 mmHg and 5.0 mmHg in DBP compared with placebo. In 2000, the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality analysed results from 27 randomised, placebo-controlled trials and reported that results were mixed. When significant reductions in blood pressure were observed, these were small. Several newer Read more […]