Artemisia Herba-Alba

The genus Artemisia is a member of the large and evolutionary advanced plant family Asteraceae (Compositae). More than 300 different species comprise this diverse genus which is mainly found in arid and semi-arid areas of Europe, America, North Africa as well as in Asia. Artemisia species are widely used as medicinal plants in folk medicine. Some species such as Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia annua or Artemisia vulgaris have even been incorporated into the pharmacopoeias of several European and Asian countries. Sesquiterpene lactones are among the most prominent natural products found in Artemisia species and are largely responsible for the importance of these plants in medicine and pharmacy. For example, the antimalarial effect of the long known Chinese medicinal plant Qing Hao (Artemisia annua) is due to the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin which is active against Plasmodium falciparum (). Another sesquiterpene lactone, absinthin, is the bitter tasting principle found in Artemisia absinthium formerly used to produce an alcolohic beverage called “absinth”. In addition to sesquiterpene lactones volatile terpenoids that constitute the so called essential oils are also characteristic metabolites of Artemisia species. Read more […]

Scarlet Wisteria Tree, Red Wisteria, Daun Turi

Sesbania grandiflora Pers. (Leguminosae) Sesbania grandiflora Pers. is a tree that can grow to 8-10 m in height. The compound leaves are about 30 cm long with 12 to 20 pairs of rounded, narrow, oblong leaflets, 3-4 cm by 1 cm. Flowers are 5-10 cm by 3 cm, in pale pink, red, purple or white. The pods are 25-50 cm, slender, and cylindrical with many light brown to red brown seeds. Origin Native to Malesia and cultivated in the tropics. Phytoconstituents Grandiflorol, (+)-leucocyanidin, oleanolic acid, lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses In the Philippines, the plant is used for its hypotensive properties. It is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of liver disorders. The juice of the leaves and flowers are popularly used for nasal catarrh and headache when taken as snuff. Various leaf preparations are used to treat epileptic fits. Applied externally for treatment of leprous eruptions. A poultice of the leaves is used for bruises. The leaf juice is mixed with honey for congenital bronchitis or cold in babies. Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, Anticonvulsant, Anti-inflammatory, Anxiolytic, Depressant, Diuretic, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycaemic, Read more […]


FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS help in the dissolution of thrombi or blood clots. Some agents used clinically are versions of endogenous agents, and others are agents foreign to the body, with a number of modes of action. Blood coagulation involves the conversion of fluid blood to a solid gel or a clot. The formation of a clot helps in the process of haemostasis (see HAEMOSTATICS). The formation of fibrin filament, together with the adhesion and activation of platelets, helps form the haemostatic plug, which serves to block the damaged blood vessel wall. The actual elements of the clot, insoluble strands of fibrin, are the end-product of a cascade largely involving serine protease enzymes, notably thrombin, and blood-borne proteins. A thrombus is the unwanted formation of a haemostatic plug in blood vessels, often within the veins or arteries of the heart, commonly in pathological conditions associated with arterial disease or where there is stasis. Pieces of the thrombus may break off and form an embolism, which may lodge in vessels in the lungs or brain causing damage to the tissues supplied. Thrombolytic drugs are able actually to dissolve thrombi. In contrast, neither antiplatelet drugs nor anticoagulants are necessarily Read more […]


ENZYMES can be used in therapeutics, though in general there are difficulties in delivering them to their proposed sites of action. There are commonly serious side-effects, normally immune reactions. There have been repeated attempts to use proteolytic enzymes in therapeutics to supplement deficiencies within the gastrointestinal tract, and necessarily there are difficulties in administering such enzymes without erosion of the mouth and upper digestive tract. Some notes follow on enzymes currently used. Anistreplase is a plasminogen streptokinase activator used as a fibrinolytic agent in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Crisantaspase (asparaginase) is an enzyme isolated from E. coli, which is thought to have some activity as an anticancer and antileukaemic agent. Batroxobin from snake venom is a serine protease and with its thrombin-like enzyme it is a haemostatic and defibrinogenating agent, and can be used in peripheral arterial circulatory disorders. Cellulase is a concentrate of cellulose-splitting (cellulytic) enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger. It can be given by mouth, in combination with other digestive enzymes, to aid digestion. Chymopapain is a proteolytic enzyme isolated from Carica papaya, Read more […]

Heartsease (Viola Tricolor)

Family: Violaceae Part used: aerial parts Viola tricolor L. is annual, biennial or perennial with a short or absent rhizome. Stems (up to 30 cm) bear alternate oval, toothed leaves with a rounded base and conspicuous deeply lobed, pinnate leaf-like stipules. Flowers (1-2.5 cm) across, occur in summer, vary in color and contain white, yellow and violet of varying tones. The petals are longer than the sepals which is a distinguishing feature. It has a weak fragrance. Viola tricolor subsp. tricolor is an annual weed of cultivated soil. Viola tricolor subsp. curtisii is a perennial with rhizomes and mainly found in coastal dunes and heathland. Heartsease: Quality Heartsease is vulnerable to drying out in early summer as it has small roots so is vulnerable to changes of land use which introduce more aggressive plants. The garden pansy Viola x wittrockiana Hams is not used. The pansy was bred from Viola tricolor by nurserymen working in Britain in the early 19th century, and then crossed with other Viola species in Scotland to develop the show pansy. Pansies contain similar flavonoids to Viola tricolor, which have been shown to be antioxidant, but further research would be needed to confer any advantage, and as they Read more […]


ANTIANAEMIC AGENTS are used to treat anemia; a deficiency in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This deficiency in the haemopoietic system can have several causes, and treatment depends on the cause. There may be a deficiency of factors necessary for formation of red blood cells (iron, folic acid, vitamin B12), an excessive destruction of red blood cells (haemolytic anaemia due to autoimmune disease or where red cells are defective), or depression of the bone marrow (aplastic anaemia after exposure to radiation or certain drugs, and after certain infections). Iron supplements are often used to treat iron-deficient anemia. This might occur through severe haemorrhage, dietary deficiency or malabsorption of iron and in pregnancy. Supplements are usually salts of iron. Iron supplements may be administered orally, or sometimes by injection, in the form of ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous glycine sulphate and ferrous sulphate. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin; extrinsic factor) is required in folate metabolism for DNA synthesis, and a deficiency leads to pernicious anaemia. It is used to supplement the diet after certain operations that remove the site of production of intrinsic factor, such as total Read more […]