Artemisia Absinthium L.

Artemisia absinthium L. is a member of the family Compositae (Asteraceae) and is known by the common names wormwood (UK), absinthe (France) and wermut (Germany). The name Artemisia is derived from the Goddess Artemis, the Greek name for Diana, who is said to have discovered the plant’s virtues, while absinthium comes from the Greek word apinthion meaning “undrinkable”, reflecting the very bitter nature of the plant. The plant is also known by a number of synonyms which include: Absinthium, Wermutkraut, Absinthii Herba, Assenzio, Losna, Pelin, Armoise, Ajenjo and Alsem. The herb is native to warm Mediterranean countries, usually found growing in dry waste places such as roadsides, preferring a nitrogen-rich stoney and hence loose soil. It is also native to the British Isles and is fairly widespread. Wormwood has been naturalised in northeastern North America, North and West Asia and Africa. Brief Botanical Description The stem of this shrubby perennial herb is multibranched and firm, almost woody at the base, and grows up to 130 cm in height. The root stock produces many shoots which are covered in fine silky hairs, as are the leaves. The leaves themselves are silvery grey, 8 cm long by 3 cm broad, abundantly pinnate Read more […]

Bioactivity of Basil: Other Activities

Plants belonging to the genus Ocimum exhibit a great deal of different pharmacological activities of which the most important, as concluded by the number of research reports, will be discussed below. The activities to be discussed in more detail are anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and adaptogenic, anticarcinogenic, hypoglycemic and blood lipid lowering, radioprotective, effect on the CNS, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective and the effect on smooth muscle. In addition to these activities a number of other activities are also reported in the literature, such as antioxidant, angioprotective effect, effect on the reproductive behaviour and antiwormal activity. Anti-inflammatory Activity Ocimum sanctum L., popularly known as “Tulsi” in Hindi and “Holy Basil” in English, is a widely known sacred plant of Hindus. Different parts of the plant have been claimed to be valuable in a wide spectrum of diseases. For instance, it is used for the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, pain and fever in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Ocimum sanctum is now intensively studied in order to prove these activities by pharmacological evidence. A methanol extract and an aqueous suspension of Ocimum sanctum leaves inhibited Read more […]

Scarlet Wisteria Tree, Red Wisteria, Daun Turi

Sesbania grandiflora Pers. (Leguminosae) Sesbania grandiflora Pers. is a tree that can grow to 8-10 m in height. The compound leaves are about 30 cm long with 12 to 20 pairs of rounded, narrow, oblong leaflets, 3-4 cm by 1 cm. Flowers are 5-10 cm by 3 cm, in pale pink, red, purple or white. The pods are 25-50 cm, slender, and cylindrical with many light brown to red brown seeds. Origin Native to Malesia and cultivated in the tropics. Phytoconstituents Grandiflorol, (+)-leucocyanidin, oleanolic acid, lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses In the Philippines, the plant is used for its hypotensive properties. It is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of liver disorders. The juice of the leaves and flowers are popularly used for nasal catarrh and headache when taken as snuff. Various leaf preparations are used to treat epileptic fits. Applied externally for treatment of leprous eruptions. A poultice of the leaves is used for bruises. The leaf juice is mixed with honey for congenital bronchitis or cold in babies. Pharmacological Activities Antibacterial, Anticonvulsant, Anti-inflammatory, Anxiolytic, Depressant, Diuretic, Hepatoprotective, Hypoglycaemic, Read more […]

Black Nightshade, Terong Meranti, Poison Berry

Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) Solanum nigrum L. is a small herb, up to 1.5 m tall. Leaves are ovate, ovate-oblong, glabrous, hairy, 1-16 cm by 0.25-12 cm. Inflorescence of 2-10 in an extra-axillary cluster, with white or purple corolla and yellow central protrusion. Fruit is globose, black in colour but is green when immature, 0.5 cm in diameter, with many seeds. Origin Native to Southwest Asia, Europe, India and Japan. Phytoconstituents Solanidine, α-, β-, γ-chaconine, desgalactotigonin, α-, β-solamargine, diosgenin, solanadiol, α-, β-, γ-solanines, soladulcidine, solanocapsine, α-, β-solansodamine, solasodine, α-solasonine, tigogenin, tomatidenol, uttronins A and B, uttrosides A and B, solanigroside A-H and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses The stem, leaves and roots are used as a decoction for wounds, tumours and cancerous growths, sores and as an astringent. They are also used as a condiment, stimulant, tonic, for treatment of piles, dysentery, abdominal pain, inflammation of bladder, relief of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, eye ailments, itch, psoriasis, skin diseases, eczema, ulcer, relief of cramps, rheumatism, neuralgia and expulsion of excess fluids. The roots are used as an expectorant. The Read more […]

Indian Almond, Katapang

Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) Terminalia catappa L. is a tall tree, up to 25 m tall. Branches are horizontally whorled, giving it a pagoda shape. Leaves are shiny, obovate, 10-25 cm long, tapering to a short thick petiole. Leaves are yellow that turn red before shedding. Flowers are small and white. Fruits have smooth outer coat, 3-6 cm long, flattened edges, with a pointed end. Pericarp is fibrous and fleshy. Origin Native to tropical and temperate Asia, Australasia, the Pacific and Madagascar. Phytoconstituents Catappanin A, chebulagic acid, 1-desgalloylleugeniin, geraniin, granatin B, punicalagin, punicalin, tercatain, terflavins A & B, tergallagin, euginic acid and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses Terminalia catappa has been used to treat dysentery in a number of Southeast Asian countries. In Indonesia, the leaves are used as a dressing for swollen rheumatic joints while in the Philippines, they are used to expel worms. In Karkar Island, New Guinea, juice from the squeezed leaves is applied to sores and the sap from the white stem pith is squeezed and drunk to relieve cough. In Nasingalatu, Papua New Guinea, the flower is crushed, mixed with water and drunk to induce sterility. In New Britain, Read more […]

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)

Milk Thistle: Medical Uses Milk thistle improves liver function tests and helps to counteract mushroom (Amanita phalloides) poisoning if taken within 24 hours after ingestion of the mushroom. It can also be used for chemical-induced liver damage, cirrhosis, and viral hepatitis. Historical Uses Milk thistle has been used traditionally for liver complaints. Growth A member of the aster family, milk thistle is native to southern and western Europe and some parts of the U.S. Part Used • Fruits, known as achenes () Major Chemical Compounds • Silymarin • Silibinin Milk Thistle: Clinical Uses Milk thistle improves liver function tests and reverses mushroom (Amanita phalloides) poisoning if given within 24 hours after ingestion of the mushroom. It can also be used for chemical-induced liver damage, cirrhosis, and viral hepatitis. Silibinin may be useful in prostate cancer. It is approved by the German Commission E for dyspepsia, liver damage, and liver disease. Mechanism of Action This herb has antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hepatorestorative properties. It also increases the gluthione content of liver, inhibits leukotrienes, and stimulates protein synthesis. Silibinin, an antioxidant in milk thistle, Read more […]

Botanical Treatment Strategies for Herpes: Immunomodulation and Adaptogenic Support

Andrographis Andrographis, an Asian herb used in the Ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antioxidant, and immune-enhancing herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate immune enhancing activity and immunomodulating effects including its ability to stimulate both antigen-specific and nonspecific immunity, reduce inflammation, relieve fever and sore throat, and reduce incidence of common cold and upper respiratory infection in children and adults. Andrographalide, a constituent of the herb, has demonstrated anticancer activity. One study demonstrated specific anti-herpes simplex virus activity using isolate diterpenes from the herb. Western herbal medicine uses this herb in combination with other immunomodulating herbs, and in multieffect comprehensive formulae for patients who experience recurrent herpes outbreaks and who also have a tendency toward frequent colds and infections generally, and who also may be run down and depleted. It is excellent combined with adaptogens for overall immune support. Eleuthero Eleuthero is an important traditional medicine in China and Russia, used to stimulate the immune Read more […]

Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) Sacred Lotus, East Indian Lotus, Oriental Lotus Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. is an aquatic plant that grows in shallow waters. Leaves are green, round, 30-60 cm across and with long petiole. Flowers are pink, white or red, 10-30 cm and solitary. Fruits are non-edible and non-fleshy. Origin Native to tropical and temperate Asia, Australia and Eastern Europe. Phytoconstituents Nuciferin, nornuciferin, nelumboroside A & B, nelumstemine, dotriacontane, ricinoleic, roemerin, liensinine, neferine, lotusine, liriodenine, asimilobin, pronuciferine and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses The leaves are used to treat sunstroke, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, dizziness and vomiting of blood. The plant is used as an antidote for mushroom poisoning and for smallpox. In Ayurveda, the plant is used to treat cholera, diarrhoea, worm infestation, vomiting, exhaustion and intermittent fever. The fruits are used in decoction for agitation, fever, heart and haematemesis while the stamens are used to “purify the heart, permeate the kidneys, strengthen virility, to blacken the hair, for haemoptysis and spermatorrhoea”. They are also used to treat premature ejaculation, as astringent for bleeding, Read more […]

Lonicera japonica

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) Japanese Honeysuckle, Jin Yin Hua Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a climbing shrub having tomen-tose young leaves and stems. Leaves are simple, opposite and exstipulate. Blade is elliptic, 3-8 cm by 2-3 cm, truncate at base, obtuse and chartaceous. Flowers are axillary, white, and turns yellow upon maturity. Fruits are globose and black. Origin A native of East Asia, widely cultivated and naturalised throughout the world. Phytoconstituents Linalool, luteolin, geraniol, aromadendrene, eugenol, loniceroside A, B, C, L-phenylalaninosecologanin, (Z)-aldosecologanin, (E)-aldosecologanin and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses In China, the flowers are used for influenza, boils and carbuncle. In Malaysia, decoctions of dried flowers are used for cooling, flu, fever, headache, and boils. Distilled flowers are used to produce a medicine for treating postprandial stomachaches. Flower tea is prescribed to treat fever, sore throat, mouth sores, headache, conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal ulcers, breast infections, muscle and joint pain, stomach problems, diarrhoea, and painful urination. They are used in the treatment of arthritis and inflammation. Flower buds are used in infusions Read more […]

Ricinus communis

Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) Castor Oil Plant, Castor Bean Ricinus communis L. is an erect herb, growing up to 3.6 m high, having pinkish succulent stem and large alternate palmate leaves that are green or reddish brown. Leaves are lobed, consisting of 6-8 radiating leaflets with serrated edges and prominent central veins. Flowers are green, pink or red and inconspicuous, with no petals. The fruits are capsular, with three lobes, prickly and green, containing three seeds. Origin Native to Africa, naturalised throughout tropics and subtropics. Phytoconstituents Ricin, ricinoleic acid, ricinine, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, o-coumaric acids, syringic acid, cinnamic acids, stigmasterol, fucosterol and others. Traditional Medicinal Uses Its leaf poultice is applied to boils and sores in India; to treat headaches and fever in Hawaii. The leaves and roots are used in a decoction for anal prolapse, arthritis, constipation, facial palsy, lymphadenopathy, strabismus, uteral prolapse, cough, and also as a discutient and expectorant. The heated leaves are applied to gout and swellings as well. The leaves and oil are used for dermatological purposes in Nigeria. Its seeds are used to treat abscesses and skin eruptions, Read more […]