The Therapeutic Potential For Cannabis

«Cannabis Use and Abuse by Man: An Historical Perspective» of this site provides a fascinating, historical account of the use of cannabis across many cultures and centuries. Suffice it to say here that any natural substance with over 5000 years of medical history will have attached to it a heritage of hearsay and legend through which one must sift to identify areas of true therapeutic potential for us in the late twentieth century and beyond. A summary of conditions for which cannabis has been used, ranging through various shades of rationality, appears in Table Medicinal and quasi-medicinal uses for cannabis and its derivatives: Indications for which only anecdote or reports of traditional use exist: aphrodisiac muscular spasm in rabies / tetanus Huntingdon’s chorea jaundice toothache earache tumour growth cough hysteria insanity menstrual cramps rheumatism movement disorders gut spasm pyrexia inflammed tonsils migraine headache increasing uterine  contractions in childbirth urinary retention/ bladder spasm parasite infection fatigue allergy fever herpetic pain hypertension joint inflammation diarrhoea malaria forgetfulness Indications Read more […]

Herb-Drug Interactions: Cannabis

Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) Synonym(s) and related species Bhang, Dagga, Ganja, Hashish, Indian hemp, Marihuana, Marijuana. Cannabis indica Lam. Constituents Cannabis herb contains a wide range of cannabinoids, which are the major active compounds. The main psychoactive constituent is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), and it is the cause of many of the pharmacological effects elicited by the consumption of cannabis. However, other cannabinoids, which do not possess psychoactive properties, such as cannabidiol, cannabinol (a decomposition product of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), cannabigerol and cannabichromene, are increasingly being investigated for their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Cannabinoids are often found in the plant as their acid metabolites, e.g. ll-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol acid and others, especially if the plant has been grown in a cooler climate. These decarboxylate to the parent cannabinoid at high temperatures, such as during smoking. Most medicinal cannabis products have been heat treated to ensure that the cannabinoids are present only in the non-acid form. Use and indications Cannabis has no current established use in herbal Read more […]

Iodine: Deficiency Signs and Symptoms

PRIMARY DEFICIENCY Iodine deficiency results when iodide intake is <20 µg/day. In situations of moderate deficiency, TSH induces thyroid hypertrophy in order to concentrate iodide, resulting in a goitre. Most of these cases remain euthyroid, but in cases of severe iodine deficiency, myxoedema may result in adults and cretinism in infants, both of which are serious conditions. Myxoedema is characterised by swelling of the hands, face, feet and peri-orbital tissues and can lead to coma and death if sufficiently severe and left untreated. Endemic cretinism is divided into two forms, neurologic or myxoedematous, depending on the interplay of genetics and iodine deficiency. Usually children with neurologic cretinism are mentally deficient and often deaf mute but of normal height and strength and may have goitre. Myxoedematous cretinism is characterised by dwarfism, mental deficiency, dry skin, large tongue, umbilical hernia, muscular incoordination and puffy facial features. Concomitant selenium deficiency may be a contributing factor in myxoedematous cretinism. Early treatment with thyroid hormone supplementation can promote normal physical growth; however, intellectual disability may not be prevented and in very Read more […]

Licorice: Adverse Reactions

Many of the adverse effects attributed to licorice are due to glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) at doses above 100-400 mg/day. For this reason, the deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) may be safer and more appropriate in cases where glycyrrhizin (GL) or GA are not required for efficacy. Side-effects may be more pronounced in people with essential hypertension who appear to be more sensitive to the inhibition of 11HSD by licorice than normotensive subjects. • Hypercortisolism and pseudohyperaldosteronism — associated with sodium retention, potassium loss and suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and presenting as hypertension, fluid retention, breathlessness, hypernatraemia and hypokalaemia. • Hypokalaemia — may present as hypotonia and flaccid paralysis, peripheral oedema, polyuria, proximal myopathy, lethargy, paraesthesiae, muscle cramps, headaches, tetany, breathlessness and hypertension. In practice, licorice is often mixed with the potassium-rich herb dandelion leaf, which also has mild diuretic effects. • Hypokalaemic paralysis — although rare, some cases have been reported as a result of chronic licorice use. • Rhabdomyolysis — a number of cases are reported in the scientific Read more […]