Yellow Oleander, Trumpet Flower

2015

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. (Apocynaceae)

Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. is a shrub, up to 6 m tall. All parts contain highly poisonous milky latex. Leaves are simple, few, exstipulate and spirally arranged. Blade is linear, 7-13 cm by 0.5-1 cm and glossy. Flowers are large, yellow, 5 cm across, gathered in few flowered terminal cymes. Fruits are green, shiny, globose, 4-5.5 cm across with 4 or less poisonous seeds.

Origin

Native to Central and South America.

Phytoconstituents

Thevetins A and B, thevetosides, acetylperuvoside, epipemviol, perusitin, theveneriin, thevebioside, thevefolin, pervianoside I-III and others.

Traditional Medicinal Uses

Used as an abortifacient, to treat congestive heart failure, malaria, leprosy, indigestion, ringworm, venereal disease and even as a suicide instrument. Used in India as an astringent to the bowel, useful in urethral discharge, worms, skin diseases, wounds, piles, eye problems and itch. Used in continental Europe and is considered particularly useful in mild myocardial insufficiency and digitalis intolerance. Its bark is used as an emetic, febrifuge, insecticidal, poison and for reviving patients with heart failure.

Pharmacological Activities

Antiarrhythmic, Antifungal, Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity, Larvicidal, Molluscicidal, and Cardiotonic.

Dosage

No information as yet.

Adverse Reactions

Vomiting, dizziness, and cardiac dysrhythmias such as conduction block affecting the sinus and AV nodes may occur.

Toxicity

Toxic to humans, fishes and animals. Ingestion of half to fifteen seeds may cause a varying degree of vomiting, palpitation, arrhythmia including sinus bradycardia and could also lead to death. The kernels of about 10 fruits may be fatal to adults while the kernel of one fruit may be fatal to children.

Contraindications

No information as yet.

Drug-Herb Interactions

No information as yet.

[Note: The purified glucoside thevetin, extracted from the seeds, is prescribed as a cardiotonic drug in a 0.1% solution orally, in a dose of 1 to 2 ml daily, or in 1 mg/2 ml ampoules parenterally. 1 to 2 ampoules have been given daily for its cardiotonic property. A dose of 2.4 mg followed by average maintenance dose of 600 μg has been shown to be effective in 22 patients with congestive heart failure. The herb has been administered as a thevetin tablet of 0.25 mg/tablet. A maintenance dose consists of 0.25 mg/day. For injection administration, an injection ampoule is prepared from 0.25 mg/ml diluted in a 5% glucose solution. However, note that thevetin is not conventionally used in clinical practice and its dosage is not found in pharmacopoeial monographs.]